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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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Year : 2005  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 46-71
Vascular Access Related Infections in Hemodialysis Patients


Division of Nephrology, Postgraduate Department of Medicine, King Fahd Hospital & Territory Care Center, Hofuf, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Anil K Saxena
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, King Fahad Hospital & Tertiary Care Center, Hofuf, Al-Hasa-31982
Saudi Arabia
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PMID: 18209459

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Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at considerably high risk for vascular access­related blood stream infections (VRBSI) that result in serious complications. Such severe infections are a great deal more frequent with central venous catheters (CVCs) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts than with arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Nonetheless, the CVCs, though having "undesirable" side effects, remain "unavoidable" for the patients requiring instant dialysis access, as a consequence of the unpredictable course of chronic renal disease. Although early antibiotic treatment should include the coverage for Staphylococcus aureus, the treatment of catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI) remains controversial. Antimicrobial- anticoagulant 'locks' have shown promising results in several recent randomized controlled trials in the treatment and prevention of CRBSI. Policy of increasing AVF prevalence beyond 50% is bound to have an enduring positive effect on HD outcomes. Standard infection control measures for hygiene and aseptic handling of CVCs cannot be overemphasized. The catheters with 'bioactive' surface with thrombo-resistant and infection-resistant properties will be available in the near future.


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