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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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    Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-February 2017
Volume 28 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-207

Online since Thursday, January 12, 2017

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

The prevalence of pregnancy-related acute renal failure in Asia: A systematic review p. 1
Zynab Karimi, Leila Malekmakan, Maryam Farshadi
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198092  
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a major complication during pregnancy and is associated with high mortality rate in developing countries. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of pregnancy-related ARF in Asia. This study is a systematic review Google Scholar, PubMed, and Medline databases were searched for all papers in English on pregnancy related ARF (PR-ARF) in Asian countries that were published between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Of all the articles published in that period, 19 were selected - 17 were original articles and two were cases reports. We gathered information on the prevalence of PR-ARF, parity, duration of pregnancy when PR-ARF developed, etiology of PR-ARF, common clinical symptoms, and laboratory findings in PR-ARF.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Protective role of Nigella sativa in diabetic nephropathy: A randomized clinical trial Highly accessed article p. 9
Zafar Masood Ansari, Mohammad Nasiruddin, Rahat Ali Khan, Shahzad Faizul Haque
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198093  
This study aims to evaluate efficacy and safety of Nigella sativa oil supplementation in patients with chronic kidney disease Stage 3 and 4 due to diabetic nephropathy. It was a prospective, comparative, and open-label study. Patients were randomized into two groups. Group 1 (Control) received conservative management of diabetic nephropathy, whereas Group 2 (Test) received N. sativa oil (2.5 mL, once daily and per orally) along with conservative management for 12 weeks. Blood glucose, hemogram, and kidney function test were done at 0, 6, and 12 weeks of treatment. Significance of differences between pre- and post-treatment values in each group was assessed using Student's paired t-test and between the groups using unpaired t-test. We found a drop in blood glucose, serum creatinine, blood urea, and 24 h total urinary protein levels and a rise in glomerular filtration rate, 24 h total urinary volume, and hemoglobin level in the treatment group compared to the control group.
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A study of clinical assessment of frailty in patients on maintenance hemodialysis supported by cashless government scheme p. 15
Manjusha Yadla, Jyothi Priyadarshini John, Mahesh Mummadi
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198102  
This is a prospective cohort study to assess the prevalence of frailty in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) under the government-funded scheme at our center and to assess the relationship between frailty and falls, hospitalizations, and mortality. This was done at our center which is completely supported by the government, which provides HD to all the patients under poverty line. Epidemiological data, anthropometric measurements, comorbidities assessment, frailty assessment using Fried criteria, subsequent hospitalizations, falls, and mortality were recorded in our prevalent dialysis population at our center between October 2014 and October 2015. Two hundred and twenty-six patients were enrolled during this period. Twenty-one patients were excluded as they did not satisfy the inclusion criteria. Two hundred and five prospective patients were studied for the predictors of frailty. Frailty was present in 82% of the study population. Mean age of our study population was 44.95 ± 13.27 years. On univariate analysis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension (HTN), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), left ventricular dysfunction (LVD), peripheral vascular disease (PVD), smoking, hepatitis C, inadequate dialysis, intradialytic hypotension (IDH), interdialytic weight gain, low serum creatinine <4 mg/dL, and anemia (Hb <10 g/dL) were found to be statistically significantly different between frail and nonfrail groups On multivariate regression analysis, only HTN, PVD, CVA, anemia, smoking, and IDH were found to be significant. Frailty is highly prevalent among dialysis population. Factors predicting frailty include HTN, smoking, LVD, PVD, CVA, smoking, anemia, and IDH. Frailty is a significant risk factor for falls and hospitalizations.
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The evaluation of the relationship between serum levels of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10 and metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis patients p. 23
Narges Sadat Zahed, Saghar Chehrazi
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198106  
Chronic kidney disease is defined as progressive kidney dysfunction. The levels of various cytokines increase in hemodialysis (HD) patients. High levels of interleukins (ILs) and presence of metabolic acidosis are described as independent risk factors for morbidity and mortality in these patients. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between IL-6 and IL-10 and serum bicarbonate and metabolic acidosis in HD patients. In this analytical crosssectional study, patients referred to the HD units of Loghman Hakim and Shahid Ashrafi Esfahani Hospitals were randomly selected. Demographic and laboratory data, such as albumin, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, parathormone, C-reactive protein, complete blood count, ferritin, ILs-6 and -10, and arterial blood gas analysis, were recorded for each patient. The correlation between IL and serum bicarbonate and other variables were evaluated by SPSS software. The patients were compared for the presence of acidosis and positivity for IL. A total of 84 patients with a mean age of 60.98 years and mean body mass index of 24.86 kg/m[2] were evaluated (53% male and 57% female). The mean dialysis duration was 24.86 ± 3.98 months. Overall, 41.7% of the patients had diabetes mellitus and 36.9% of them had hypotension. The mean serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were 6.036 and 17.46 pg/ml, respectively. There was a significant correlation between IL-6 and IL-10 levels and serum bicarbonate and the incidence of metabolic acidosis (P <0.05). Based on the results, metabolic acidosis and bicarbonate could be considered prognostic factors to differentiate the increased levels of IL-6 and IL-10 and associated morbidity and mortality.
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Impact of residual renal function on clinical outcome and quality of life in patients on peritoneal dialysis p. 30
Manns Manohar John, Amit Gupta, Raj K Sharma, Anupama Kaul
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198109  
We studied the impact of residual renal function (RRF) on clinical outcome and quality of life in 61 patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). They were assigned to two groups, at the time of initiation of PD, based on their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The high RRF group had eGFR ≥5 mL/min/1.73 m[2] and the low RRF group hade GFR <5 mL/min/1.73 m[2]. All patients were followed up at regular intervals for clinical and biochemical variables. Baselines characteristics including age, sex, body mass index and cause of the kidney disease were similar in both groups. The high RRF group had a higher rate of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis discontinuation. The incidence of peritonitis was higher in the low RRF group. Other infections (cellulitis, gastroenteritis, sepsis) were more common in patients with low RRF, compared to the high RRF group. The quality of life as assessed by depression score, restless leg syndrome, and sleep quality were poor in patients with reduced RRF. We found that a high RRF at the time of initiation of PD, significantly decreased the incidence of infections, depression, better nutrition, and lower levels of alkaline phosphatase; providing indirect evidence of better renal clearance of phosphorous, in those with preserved RRF.
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Insulin resistance in predialytic, nondiabetic, chronic kidney disease patients: A hospital-based study in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India p. 36
Neha Srivastava, RG Singh, Usha , Alok Kumar, Shivendra Singh
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198114  
Most investigations have focused on patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). More recently, due to increased recognition of the high prevalence of moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease (CKD), attention has been redirected to this patient population to identify risk factors associated with hospitalization, death, and progression to ESRD. The objective of this study was to examine the degree and determinants of insulin resistance (IR) in predialytic, nondiabetic, CKD patients. Our study is a hospital-based cross-sectional study. The participants were aged 18 years and above with CKD due to any cause, were all nondiabetic patients, and the mean serum creatinine was 1.41-5 mg/dL. Anthropometric parameters included body weight, height, and skinfold thickness. Homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) score was 2.5 ± 1.2 in CKD patients and 1.9 ± 0.7 in controls. In the unadjusted analysis, there was a significant (P <0.05) correlation between HOMA-IR and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) levels. Upon adjusting for age and sex, total body fat (BF), globulin, TG, and C-reactive protein were having positive, significant (P <0.05) correlation with HOMA-IR. In multivariate regression models, BMI and total BF% were significant (P <0.05) predictors of IR in patients with CKD but not in controls. BF% and BMI are indicators of IR in CKD as in non-CKD population.
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Evaluation of renal lesions and clinicopathologic correlation in rheumatoid arthritis p. 44
Periyasamy Muthukumar, Jeyachandran Dhanapriya, Natarajan Gopalakrishnan, Thanigachalam Dineshkumar, Ramanathan Sakthirajan, T Balasubramaniyan
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198118  
The most common causes of renal disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are glomerulonephritis (GN), amyloidosis, tubulo-interstitial nephritis, and drug toxicity. Our aim was to evaluate the clinicopathologic correlation of renal lesions and to assess the course and prognosis of renal disease in patients with RA. We conducted a prospective observational study in all adult patients with RA between July 2010 and June 2015. The total number of patients studied was 90, with a female:male ratio of 2.3:1. Mean follow-up duration was 30 ± 6.5 months. About 54 patients (60%) were asymptomatic. The most common symptom was edema legs (30%), followed by oliguria (10%). About 18 patients (20%) presented with the nephrotic syndrome, 15 patients (16.6%) with nephritic syndrome, and 30 (33%) with asymptomatic urinary abnormalities. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was seen in 48 of 90 patients (53%).The most common renal pathology noted was mesangioproliferative GN followed by membranous nephropathy (MN). IgM with C3 deposits was the most common immunofluorescence pattern observed. Among the patients who had glomerular diseases, complete remission was seen in nine patients, partial remission in 15, and persistent proteinuria in 14. Duration of RA and a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate correlated significantly with persistent proteinuria. Only one patient in the glomerular disease group progressed to dialysis-dependent renal failure. On followup, 11 out of 48 CKD patients showed a significant decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate and worsened to the next stage of CKD. Renal disease in RA presents with varied renal pathology. MN was seen frequently and was not associated with gold or penicillamine usage. Relatively high incidence of CKD was noted. Hence, it is important to monitor renal function abnormalities periodically in these patients.
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Relation of fibroblast growth factor-23 and cardiovascular calcification in end-stage kidney disease patients on regular hemodialysis p. 51
Tarek Zakaria El Baz, Osama Ahmed Khamis, Osama Ashry Ahmed Gheith, Salama Saad Abd Ellateif, Abdallah Mahmoud Abdallah, Hussein Chahine Abd El Aal
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198127  
More than half of deaths in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients are due to cardiovascular disease. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) was found to be associated with mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients and correlates with peripheral calcification. Aortic calcification is associated with coronary artery calcification. Both aortic and peripheral vascular calcifications were associated with mortality in chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the relation between intact FGF-23 and cardiovascular calcification in patients with ESKD who were maintained on regular HD. Sixty clinically stable ESKD patients on regular HD were enrolled into this cross-sectional study. They were evaluated by basal abdominal X-ray. They were divided into two groups: (Group A, n = 30), patients with abdominal aortic calcification who underwent multislice computerized tomography scan to measure coronary artery calcification score; and (Group B, n = 30), patients without abdominal aortic calcification. All of them were evaluated by lipid profile and dialysis adequacy parameters. Fifty percent of patients had vascular calcification. We found a significant positive correlation between age and intact FGF-23; significant positive correlations between age, body mass index, duration of HD, and abdominal aortic calcification score. FGF-23 of all patients was elevated and had significant positive correlation with aortic and coronary calcifications in addition to lipid profile, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and inflammatory markers. Plasma intact FGF-23 was elevated in nondiabetic ESKD patients, and vascular calcification was prevalent in such group of patients with many traditional and nontraditional risk factors. Possibly through its disturbing effects on minerals and parathyroid hormone, FGF-23 might indirectly affect vascular calcification. LVMI was higher in patients with vascular calcification and correlated positively with it.
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Evaluation of arterial stiffness in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease patients p. 61
Bodanapu Mastanvalli, Kolla Praveen Kumar, Desai Madhav, PL Venkata Pakki Reddy, Shaik Mahaboob Vali
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198136  
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing problem worldwide. Clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown that structural and functional changes that occur in major arteries are a major contributing factor to the high mortality in uremic patients. Recent studies have shown a stepwise increase of the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) from CKD Stage 1 to Stage 5. We evaluated the cfPWV and augmentation index (AIx), as indirect markers of arterial stiffness in patients with nondiabetic CKD and compared the values with normal population; we also evaluated the relationship between various stages of CKD and arterial stiffness markers. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Nephrology for a duration of two years from January 15, 2012, to January 14, 2014. Fifty patients with nondiabetic CKD were studied along with 50 healthy volunteers who did not have CKD, who served as controls. Assessment of arterial stiffness (blood pressure, PWV, heart rate, aortic augmentation pressure, and AIx) was performed using the PeriScope device. PWV positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean aortic arterial pressure, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. Arterial stiffness increased as CKD stage increased and was higher in nondiabetic CKD group than in the general population. Arterial stiffness progressed gradually from CKD Stage 2 to 5, and then abruptly, in dialysis patients. Measures to decrease the arterial stiffness and its influence on decreasing cardiovascular events need further evaluation.
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Fasting in Ramadan is not associated with deterioration of chronic kidney disease: A prospective observational study p. 68
Ekrem Kara, Osman Zikrullah Sahin, Bayram Kizilkaya, Burcu Ozturk, Gokhan Pusuroglu, Safak Yildirim, Mustafa Sevinc, Tuncay Sahutoglu
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198140  
Although not mandatory for patients, many Muslims fast in Ramadan. We aimed to investigate the effects of long hours (17.5) fasting on renal functions in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Stage 3-5 CKD patients with stable renal function were recruited to this prospective observational study three months ahead of Ramadan in 2015. All patients were instructed regarding possible deleterious effects of dehydration caused by fasting. Forty-five patients (mean age 66.8 ± 10.3 years, 68.8% male) chose to fast and 49 (mean, age: 64.1 ± 12.6 years, 51% male) chose not to fast. Clinical and laboratory data were recorded before and after Ramadan. Baseline clinical and laboratory parameters were similar in the two groups, except for higher serum creatinine and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the nonfasting group (2.22 ± 0.99 vs. 1.64 ± 0.41 mg/dL, P <0.001 and 3 1.9 ± 12.4 vs. 42.6 ± 9.8 mL/min, P <0.001, respectively). More than 30% elevation in serum creatinine after Ramadan occurred in 8.8% and 8.1% of fasting and nonfasting patients, respectively (P = 0.9). More than 25% drop eGFR after Ramadan was noted in seven (15.5%) and six (12.2%) fasting and nonfasting patients, respectively (P = 0.642). Patients with ≥ 25% drop in eGFR (13 vs. 81) were older (72.3 ± 8.3 years vs. 64.3 ± 11.7 years, P = 0.020) and more frequently using diuretics (69.2% vs. 35.8%, P = 0.023). In multiple linear regression analysis, only advanced age was found to be associated with ≥25% drop in eGFR after Ramadan in the fasting group. Fasting during Ramadan was not associated with increased risk of declining in renal functions in patients with Stage 3-5 CKD. However, elderly patients may still be under a higher risk.
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The role of dynamic renal scintigraphy on clinical decision making in hydronephrotic children p. 76
Seçil Arslansoyu Çamlar, Nazlı Deveci, Alper Soylu, Mehmet Atilla Türkmen, Derya Özmen, Gamze Çapakaya, Salih Kavukçu
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198146  
Hydronephrosis may be related to an obstructive cause, ureteropelvic/uretero-vesical junction obstruction or nonobstructive [vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)]. When an obstructive pathology is considered, dynamic renal scintigraphy may help to predict whether it is a true obstruction or not. In this study, we aimed to determine the contribution of dynamic renal scintigraphy with [99] mTc-MAG-3 to the clinical decision-making for surgery in hydronephrotic children. Files of the patients evaluated by MAG-3 scintigraphy for antenatal (AH)/postnatal (PH) hydronephrosis between 1992 and 2014 were reviewed. Gender, age, hydronephrosis (HN) grade by ultrasound (US), presence of VUR, MAG-3 result (obstructive vs. nonobstructive), ultimate diagnosis, and need for surgery were assessed. Cases with double collecting system and neurogenic bladder were excluded from the study. All of the patients had normal serum creatinine and eGFR. There were a total of 178 patients with 218 hydronephrotic renal units (mean age 34.7 ± 52.7 months; male/ female = 121/57, AH of 62%). MAG-3 was nonobstructive in 134 and obstructive in 84 hydronephrotic renal units. MAG-3 was obstructive in 47 of 121 (39%) males and 30 of 57 (53%) females (P = 0.058, odds ratio (OR) for obstruction was 1.9 for girls). MAG-3 was obstructive in 47 of 135 (35%) units with AH and 37 of 83 (45%) units with PH (P = 0.137). In 81 units with the society of fetal urology-4 HN by US, MAG-3 was obstructive in 55 (68%), and surgery was required in 52 of 55 (95%). Surgery was required for only two (7%) of the remaining 26 units with nonobstructive dilatation (P <0.001, sensitivity 96%, specificity 89%, OR 208). Antero-posterior diameter >16.5 mm was the best cutoff level for predicting obstruction by MAG-3 (sensitivity 75.2%; specificity 71%; OR 3.8). MAG-3 significantly affects clinical decision for surgery in HN. Hydronephrotic girls have more risk in terms of true obstruction. Combining MAG-3 with US improves the discrimination of true obstruction during follow-up.
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Knowledge and attitude towards organ donation among adult population in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia p. 81
Sandeep Agrawal, Saud Binsaleem, Mohammed Al-Homrani, Abdullaziz Al-Juhayim, Abdullah Al-Harbi
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198150  
Organ transplantation is a lifesaving treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. Despite the advanced medical science and technology, shortage of organs had led to a growing gap between the demand for organs and the number of donors. With a limited number of studies on the subject and based on those findings, the public knowledge and attitudes must be assessed to understand more clearly that why many people are opposing donating their organs in Saudi Arabia. The objective of our study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of the adult population toward organ donation in Saudi Arabia. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study where the information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was distributed in both King Khalid Hospital and Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital, and data gathered analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0). There were a total of 403 respondents. Nearly 35.6% did not have the knowledge that organ donation is legal in the KSA. Almost 97% did not know where to go if they want to become donors. All of who were willing to donate, the most common reason was to save someone's life (92.7%). Body distortion (39%) and fear of health complications (35%) were the most common causes people opposed donation. It was suggested that, in order to increase the awareness for organ donation, the important role of health workers and hospital displays should be immediately addressed and public lectures should be held on regular basis. Information regarding organ donation should be incorporated with clear messages in various mass media.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS Top

The relationship between mean platelet volume and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio with inflammation and proteinuria in chronic kidney disease p. 90
Gulay Yilmaz, Can Sevinc, Sedat Ustundag, Yasemin Coskun Yavuz, Tuba Hacıbekiroglu, Esra Hatipoglu, Mehmet Baysal
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198152  
Atherosclerosis, which develops as a result of inflammation, is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we investigated the relationship of mean platelet volume (MPV) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with inflammation and proteinuria in patients with CKD Stage 3-4. Healthy individuals who applied to nephrology clinic for checkup purposes acted as controls. Fifty-three patients and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Patients with diabetes mellitus, active infection, malignancy, and coronary artery disease were excluded from the study. Biochemistry values and hemograms were recorded for all patients and for control group. NLR was calculated. The relationship between MPV/NLR and protein, fibrinogen, and proteinuria was evaluated. Our study showed a statistically significant difference between CKD group and healthy control (HC) group in uric acid, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, and NLR values (P <0.01, P <0.01, P = 0.01, P <0.01, respectively). No statistically significant difference was found between CKD and HC groups for MPV (P = 0.307). Correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between NLR and creatinine (P <0.00, r = 0.571), uric acid (P <0.00, r = 0.436), glomerular filtration rate (P <0.00, r = −0.418), 24 h urine protein (P = 0.004, r = 0.311), and 24 h urine microalbumin (P = 0.001, r = 0.354). A statistically significant relationship was detected between MPV and platelet count (P <0.001, r = −0.422), age (P = 0.004, r = −0.312), uric acid (P = 0.04, r = −0.226), and fibrinogen (P = 0.023, r = −0.249). Whereas, a statistically significant relationship was detected between NLR and microalbuminuria/proteinuria, there was no statistically significant relationship between MPV and microalbuminuria/proteinuria. Our study showed that the NLR is high in CKD group and is correlated with uric acid and proteinuria, which are known to be associated with atherosclerosis, in patients with CKD. NLR may be a determinant of inflammation and atherosclerosis in patients with CKD.
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Visceral leishmaniasis in adults with nephropathy p. 95
H Kaaroud El Jeri, A Harzallah, S Barbouch, MM Bacha, R Kheder, S Turki, S Trabelsi, E Abderrahim, F Ben Hamida, T Ben Abdallah
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198159  
The aim of this study is to evaluate the features of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in adults with nephropathy, who were not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. This is a retrospective study of 14 adults hospitalized between 2000 and 2014, with VL and renal involvement. Clinical, biological, and therapeutic data were collected from the patients' medical files. Eleven women and three men, most of whom were from the North of the country, with a mean age of 40.5 years were studied. Lupus was present in five cases, the Sicca syndrome in three cases, diabetes in one case, renal failure on dialysis in two cases, and there were three renal transplant recipients. Major clinical symptoms were fever and weakness in all cases. Enlargement of the spleen was present in eight cases and hepatomegaly in six cases. Biologic inflammatory syndrome and anemia were present in all cases, and pancytopenia was present in seven cases. Renal insufficiency was noted in all cases. Diagnosis of VL was confirmed by bone marrow examination or serology. Treatment consisted of antimoniate in 10 cases and amphotericin B in four cases. Seven deaths were recorded. Clinical symptoms of VL are atypical in patients with nephropathy and therefore, the diagnosis should be suspected in such patients because VL is still endemic in our country.
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Hepatitis C in children with chronic kidney disease: A single-center, Egypt p. 102
Doaa Mohammed Youssef, Hanaa Abdo, Ahmed Alakhras, Tamer Adham, Abdelnasser Hussien Mohamoud
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198161  
Prevalence of hepatitis C varies largely according to geographical distribution, and Egypt so far has the highest prevalence worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatitis C infection in chronic kidney disease (CKD) children in our center with regard to its incidence and other morbidities. This is a cross-sectional study involving 50 children with CKD, not on dialysis. All patients underwent a thorough history taking including disease duration and mean duration of admission, clinical examination including blood pressure measurements, and routine laboratory examination such as hemoglobin level, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, and creatinine. The detection of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies was done in all patients based on the use of third-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) that detects antibodies directed against various HCV epitopes. Nine (18%) children were found to be hepatitis C positive and 41 were negative to hepatitis C. Infected cases were of older age group and had a longer duration of CKD, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), lower hemoglobin, higher ALT, higher serum urea, and creatinine. We conclude that 18% of children with CKDs have hepatitis C infection, and those with longer the duration of renal disease is more likely to be positive for HCV. Furthermore, HCV infection may predispose to higher deterioration of eGFR, lower hemoglobin level, and more days of admission. We recommend routine testing of HCV in all children with CKD.
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RENAL DATA FROM THE ARAB WORLD Top

Incidence of hepatitis c virus seroconversion among hemodialysis patients in the Nile Delta of Egypt: A single-center study p. 107
Amany Talaat Kamal, Mohamed Nazmy Farres, Abeer Mohamed Eissa, Naglaa Ahmed Arafa, Raafat Saad Abdel-Reheem
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198162  
Egypt has the highest worldwide prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, caused in part by nosocomial transmission. Patients on hemodialysis (HD) are at especially high risk of infection. We aimed to estimate the incidence of seroconversion among HCV-negative patients undergoing regular HD at a unit in a large public hospital in the Nile Delta of Egypt, which implements the Egyptian Ministry of Health guidelines for infection control, and an isolation policy for hepatitis-positive patients. We also assessed the adherence to infection control practices and evaluated nurses and physicians' knowledge and attitude toward infection control procedures. Records of HCV-negative patients undergoing regular HD at the unit from August 2008 to August 2010 were reviewed retrospectively for data on HCV status. Patients were then followed up until September 2011, when polymerase chain reaction was performed for all patients. Infection control practices were evaluated by four checklists applied monthly and analyzed by control charts. Nurses and physicians' knowledge and attitudes toward infection control were assessed by interview questionnaires. Of 60 patients followed up, there was one case of HCV seroconversion giving an incidence rate of 0.676/100 person-years of follow-up (95% confidence interval: 0.017-3.76). There were no cases of hepatitis B virus seroconversion. The mean scores of all the infection control practices' checklists were very high and generally remained above the lower control limit over the 12-month period. Physicians and nurses achieved very high scores on knowledge and attitude on infection control (mean score >95%). This public facility had a low seroconversion rate and high adherence to infection control guidelines.
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RENAL DATA FROM ASIA-AFRICA Top

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: Study of clinical characteristics in an Indian population p. 115
Sanjay Vikrant, Anupam Parashar
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198163  
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary form of kidney disease. Clinical data on this multisystem disorder are scarce from developing countries. We conducted a prospective observational study of the clinical profile of ADPKD patients at a single center over a period of six years. A total of 208 patients were studied. Majority were male (60.6%) and the mean age was 45.8 ± 14.5 years. About 61.5% had early stage (Stages 1-3) of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 38.5% had advanced CKD (Stages 4 and 5). Clinical features observed included pain abdomen (46.2%), nocturia (65.9%), hematuria (21.6%), nephrolithiasis (38.9%), urinary tract infection (UTI) (38.9%), hypertension (69.5%), and raised serum creatinine (54.3%). The prevalence of nocturia, hypertension, and renal dysfunction showed a significant increase with age (P = 0.001). Extrarenal manifestations were polycystic liver disease in 77 patients (37%), cysts in pancreas in two (1%), and stroke in three (1.5%) (hemorrhage in 2 and infarct in 1). There was significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.027) and nephrolithiasis (P = 0.044) in males compared to females. Ninety-two patients (44.2%) had a positive family history for ADPKD. Fifteen (7.2%) had kidney failure at the diagnosis of ADPKD, were hospitalized, and underwent emergency dialysis. A total of 20 patients (9.6%) developed end-stage kidney disease during the study period. The age at diagnosis was higher, and there was a high prevalence of hypertension, nocturia, abdominal pain, nephrolithiasis, UTI, and renal dysfunction in Indian ADPKD patients.
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Role of renal biopsy in managing pediatric renal diseases: A midterm analysis of a series at bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh p. 125
Ranjit Ranjan Roy, Abdullah Al Mamun, SM Shamsul Haque, Golam Muinuddin, Md. Habibur Rahman
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198164  
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A comparison of health-related quality of life in patients with renal failure under hemodialysis and healthy participants p. 133
K Hajian-Tilaki, B Heidari, A Hajian-Tilaki
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198165  
The objective of this study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (QoL) of patients under hemodialysis (HD) and to compare this to healthy participants. We compared 154 patients on HD to 308 healthy age- and sex-matched controls recruited from Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Babol, Northern Iran in 2014. The data of health-related QoL in eight subscales were collected with interview using a standard short-form questionnaire of short form-36. The demographic data and dry weight and height were measured. The scores of each subscale were transformed from 0 (the worse state) to 100 (the best state). In univariate analysis, Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the distribution of scores between cases and controls according to gender, and multiple linear regression analysis was used to adjust the regression coefficient for possible potential confounding factors. The mean overall score of health-related QoL for men was 44.7 ± 23.2 and 74.3 ± 18.1 in patients and controls, respectively, and for women was 37.1 ± 20.8 and 62.1 ± 18.7, respectively. In all subscales, the mean score of patients was significantly lower than controls (P = 0.001) in both sexes. In all eight subscales, after adjusting for demographic characteristics, the patients had significantly lower QoL than controls (P = 0.001). In addition, the independent effect of age, gender, and educational level as predictors of QoL was significant across various subscales (P = 0.001).
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CASE REPORTS Top

A novel fibrillin-1 mutation in an egyptian marfan family: A proband showing nephrotic syndrome due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis p. 141
Mohammad Al-Haggar, Ashraf Bakr, Yahya Wahba, Paul J Coucke, Fatma El-Hussini, Mona Hafez, Riham Eid, Abdel-Rahman Eid, Amr Sarhan, Ali Shaltout, Ayman Hammad, Sohier Yahia, Ahmad El-Rifaie, Dina Abdel-Hadi
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198166  
Marfan syndrome (MFS), the founding member of connective tissue disorder, is an autosomal dominant disease; it is caused by a deficiency of the microfibrillar protein fibrillin-1 (FBN1) and characterized by involvement of three main systems; skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular. More than one thousand mutations in FBN1 gene on chromosome 15 were found to cause MFS. Nephrotic syndrome (NS) had been described in very few patients with MFS being attributed to membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis secondary to infective endocarditis. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) had been reported in NS in conjunction with MFS without confirming the diagnosis by mutational analysis of FBN1. We hereby present an Egyptian family with MFS documented at the molecular level; it showed a male proband with NS secondary to FSGS, unfortunately, we failed to make any causal link between FBN dysfunction and FSGS. In this context, we review the spectrum of renal involvements occurring in MFS patients.
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Membranous glomerulopathy and massive cervical lymphadenopathy due to immunoglobulin G4-disease p. 149
Kamel El-Reshaid, Shaikha Al-Bader, John Madda
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198167  
A 32-year-old male presented with acute and severe nephrotic syndrome as well as massive right cervical lymphadenopathy for <2 years. Computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis did not reveal any lymphadenopathy. Histopathology and immunohistochemical testing of his lymph node biopsy showed infiltrate enriched with immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-positive plasma cells. His kidney biopsy showed granular membranous deposits of IgG4 in the basement membrane without interstitial infiltrate. Antiphospholipid 2 receptor antibodies were absent excluding its "idiopathic" nature. Since he was allergic to rituximab, he was treated with corticosteroids for two months and a combination of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. His lymphadenopathy disappeared, and his proteinuria abated. The dose of the latter two medications was reduced to half after four months and will be maintained for a minimum of two years to prevent relapse of his disease.
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Denosumab for the treatment of bisphosphonate resistant hypercalcemia in a hemodialysis patient p. 154
Omar Dahmani, Christine Sophoclis, Malika Kebir, Djemai Bouguern, Aboubacry Sakho, Pascale Demarchi
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198239  
The acronym of malignancy, iatrogenic, intoxication and immobilization, sarcoidosis, hyperparathyroidism and hyperthyroidism, milk-alkali syndrome, and paget is very helpful in diagnosing hypercalcemia. We report on a 94-year-old patient with history of end-stage renal failure secondary to benign nephroangiosclerosis, who was on maintenance hemodialysis during dialysis, his blood chemistry revealed mild hypercalcemia (2.66 mmol/L) with normal level of intact primary hyperparathyroidism (32.37 ng/mL) mandating the discontinuation of Vitamin D[3]. In view of persisting hypercalcemia, denosumab 60 mg/mL was administrated subcutaneously. The serum calcium level showed a decrease and stabilized at near upper limit (2.57 mmol/L). Three weeks later, the serum calcium remained mildly elevated fluctuating between 2.66 and 2.80 mmol/L.
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Safety of denosumab in dialysis patients on calcium and vitamin D supplements p. 158
Asad Ullah, K Abdulnabi, A Khalil, J Alexander, P Pai, V Mishra
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198240  
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Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome: A report on four adult cases p. 162
Yosra Ben Ariba, Jannet Labidi, Zied Elloumi, Yosra Selmi, Salah Othmani
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198241  
Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome is a rare disease, generally presenting in children and young women. The interstitial nephritis may precede, follow, or develop concurrent to the uveitis. We report the clinical features and outcomes of four adult patients, aged 41-70 years with the TINU syndrome.
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An unusual cause of hematuria following coronary intervention p. 167
Manjusha Yadla, Sharath Chandra Koduganti, Pankaj Jariwala, Bharath Madhavaram
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198242  
Acute renal infarction is rare. Its true incidence is not known. The paucity of literature and unawareness among the physicians makes it an underdiagnosed entity. Herein, we report a case of renal infarction following coronary intervention.
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Perspectives on hypertension outcomes after single-stage clearance of a complete staghorn renal calculus p. 170
Ranjit Chaudhary, Kulwant Singh, Chirag S Dausage, Nidhi Jain
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198244  
A 55-year-old male presented, in June 2013, with left flank pain. Investigations revealed a complete staghorn stone. He had undergone two sittings of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in 2008 for left renal stone. One year subsequent to this, he was diagnosed with hypertension and diabetes. The management of complete staghorn stones in a single sitting is a difficult proposition. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the gold standard to manage such stones. The patient was subjected to PCNL, and complete clearance was achieved in one sitting. On one-year follow-up, there was a significant reduction in blood pressure (BP) and better glycemic control. Although there are several reports where hypertension has been reported after multiple sittings of ESWL, whether ESWL contributed to the genesis of hypertension and diabetes in this patient or it was simply incidental, cannot be stated with certainty. There was a significant reduction in the BP after complete stone removal, but there is uncertainty over the effect of total clearance of renal stones on hypertension, and we need to await the results of more controlled trials studying this phenomenon. A better glycemic control was perhaps achieved secondary to the eradication of recurrent urinary tract infections due to complete stone clearance.
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A case of abdominal aortic thrombosis associated with the nephrotic syndrome p. 174
Jannet Labidi, Yosra Selmi, Yosra Ben Ariba, Zied Elloumi, Saleh Othmani
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198246  
Thromboembolic disease is an important and frequent complication in patients with the nephrotic syndrome (NS), and the consequences are often severe. Usually, the venous system is affected. Arterial thrombosis has rarely been reported and occurs mainly in children. We report the case of a 27-year-old man with a history of NS due to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis resistant to steroids and cyclosporine, admitted for bilateral pain in the calves. Aortogram revealed a suspended thrombus in the abdominal aorta just below the origin of the renal arteries with embolism into the left tibioperoneal trunk and the right anterior tibial artery. Endarterectomy was performed followed by systemic heparinization with a good outcome. Arterial thrombosis is rare and must be prevented.
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Typhoid-associated acute kidney injury masquerading as a relapse of Takayasu arteritis p. 178
Revanasiddappa Manjunath, Anupama Kaul, Raj Kumar Sharma, Dharmendra Singh Bhadauria, Narayan Prasad, Amit Gupta
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198270  
Renal dysfunction is common in Takayasu arteritis. Uncommonly, renal failure in a case of Takayasu arteritis can be due to an unrelated disease, and if the disease is a rare complication, it is even more difficult to diagnose. We report a 21-year-old male with type IV Takayasu arteritis presenting with fever and renal failure, who was diagnosed to have enteric fever- related glomerulonephritis which was successfully treated.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

Polymicrobial peritonitis with Leclercia adecarboxylata in a peritoneal dialysis patient p. 181
Dilek Barutcu Atas, Arzu Velioglu, Ebru Asicioglu, Hakki Arikan, Serhan Tuglular, Cetin Ozener
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198272  
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Prevalence of dyslipidemia and macrovascular complications among post kidney transplant patients p. 183
Kawmadi W Gunawardena, Eranga S Wijewickrama, Arambepola Carukshi, Rushika D Lanerolle
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198273  
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Zika virus infection: What should we know as nephrologists? p. 186
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198274  
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Cultural and religious issues in organ transplantation: Crucial role in multiethnic countries p. 188
Mostafa Mostafazadeh-Bora, Amin Zarghami
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198275  
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An atypical presentation of cake kidney p. 190
Leonardo Spatola, Giovanni Tonoli, Pierluigi Visconti, Pietro Carleo, Daniela Di Sarra, Antonella Paola Sacco, Giulia Fainelli, Vittorio Boniotti, Gianluigi Panzolato
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198277  
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Tophi as the initial manifestation of gout in a normouricemic hemodialysis patient: An unusual case of a common disorder p. 194
Hamzi Mohamed Amine
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198278  
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Acute kidney injury due to multiple wasp stings p. 196
Manjuri Sharma, Himanab Jyoti Das, Anup Kumar Barman, Pranab Jyoti Mahanta
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198279  
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End-stage renal disease secondary to pelvic organ prolapse p. 199
Shinji Machida, Naohiko Imai, Daisuke Oishi, Katsuomi Matsui, Sayuri Shirai, Yugo Shibagaki
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198280  
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SCOT DATA Top

Health Indicators for Renal Replacement Therapy in Saudi Arabia p. 201

DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.198414  
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