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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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CASE REPORT Table of Contents   
Year : 2008  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 636-642
Primary HIV Infection Presenting as Non-traumatic Rhabdomyolysis with Acute Renal Failure

Department of Nephrology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Murugesan Ram Prabahar
Department of Nephrology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai-116, Tamilnadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

PMID: 18580027

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Renal disease is a relatively common complication in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A collapsing form of focal glomerulosclerosis has been considered as the primary form of HIV nephropathy. HIV infection is also associated with an increasing number of different forms of renal disease. Acute renal failure (ARF) syndromes are frequently noted during the course of HIV infection. The most common include the following: acute and often reversible renal failure resulting from infection, hypotension, and administration of nephrotoxins used to treat opportunistic infections, and the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy. ARF has been reported in up to 20% of hospitalized HIV infected patients compared to 3 to 5% of non-HIV infected patients. Primary HIV in-fection is usually symptomatic, and infected patients can present with a variety of symp-toms. Although ARF syndromes are frequently noted during the course of infection, it is an uncommon presentation of primary HIV infection. We describe a 42-year-old man who presented at our hospital with acute self-limited rhabdomyolysis and who was found to have primary HIV infection. Our case and other reports suggest that a diagnosis of primary HIV infection needs to be considered in patients who present with acute rhabdomyolysis.

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