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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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RENAL DATA FROM ASIA - AFRICA Table of Contents   
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 371-376
Pattern of renal diseases in children: A developing country experience

1 Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal
2 Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Biochemistry, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal

Correspondence Address:
Gauri Shankar Shah
Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.178565

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Spectrum of renal disease varies in different ethnic population, geographical location, and by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to find out the clinical spectrum and occurrence of different pediatric renal diseases at a teaching hospital in the Eastern part of Nepal. All cases of renal diseases from one month to 15 years of age, attending the pediatric renal outpatient department and/or were admitted to the wards during the period of February 2012 to January 2013, were included in the study. Detailed clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed on all patients. Diseases were categorized as per standard definitions and managed with hospital protocols. Renal diseases accounted to be 206 cases (6.9%) of total annual pediatric admissions, of which (58%) were male and (42%) female. Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) was the most common disorder (37.7%) followed by nephrotic syndrome (26.1%), urinary tract infection (21.3%), acute kidney injury (AKI) (17.9%), obstructive uropathy (1.9%), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (1.2%), and others. In AGN group, the most common cause was post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) (32.9%) followed by lupus nephritis (4%) and Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis (0.8%). Urine culture was positive in (9.22%) and the most common organism was Escherichia coli (57.9%). The causes of AKI were urosepsis, septicemia, and AGN (18.9%) each, followed by dehydration (13.5%). Mortality was found in 5% of cases and the etiologies were AKI in (72.7%), PIGN (18.1%), and CKD (9%). Renal diseases are a significant problem among children and are one of the common causes of hospital admission. These patients need comprehensive services for early identification and management.

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