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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 733-739
Nutritional assessment in children with chronic kidney disease

1 Department of Pediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated Hospitals, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated Hospitals, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Mukta Mantan
Department of Pediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College, University of Delhi, New Delhi - 110 002
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.185235

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Growth failure is a major problem in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the onset of the condition in infancy is more likely to have an adverse impact on growth than its development in later childhood. This study was aimed to assess nutritional intake and anthropometry of children presenting with CKD in a developing country. In this cross-sectional observational study, children (1-18 years) with CKD visiting the outpatient services were enrolled. The age of onset, cause of CKD, and anthropometry were recorded. Dietary intakes from three 24 h dietary recall (2 mid-week and 1 weekend day) were recorded. A blood sample was taken from all subjects for biochemical parameters. A total of 45 children (forty males and five females) with CKD underwent nutritional assessment. The median age at assessment was 108 months (13-167). Twenty-seven (60%) subjects had CKD stage 1, 2, or 3 while the remaining 40% had CKD stage 4 or 5. Of the 45 children, 27 (60%) had moderate to severe malnutrition at assessment. The mean weight and height (standard deviation scores) were −2.77 ± 2.07 and −2.30 ± 1.38, respectively. The prevalence of growth retardation was much higher in late stages of CKD; the difference was statistically significant (P <0.01). The mean caloric deficit from recommended daily allowance was −40.33% for calories, +6.2% for proteins, and −10.51% for fats. The diet was highly deficient in iron (mean 48.9% deficit); deficient in calcium (mean −22.2%) and had excess phosphates (mean 18.3%). There was a progressive decrease in intake of nutrients in advanced stages of CKD. There was a high prevalence of malnutrition (60%) in children with CKD, especially in higher stages of CKD. An appropriate dietary assessment and nutritional counseling should be planned for all patients with CKD to prevent complications associated with malnutrition and anemia.

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