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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1266-1275
Comparing diabetic and nondiabetic emphysematous pyelonephritis and evaluating predictors of mortality

Department of Urology, Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College and King Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Sheshang Uday Kamath
Department of Urology, Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College and King Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.275470

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Mortality among patients with emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) has reduced from 78% to 21%, yet it is one of the most serious urologic emergencies. This prospective observational study aims to study and compare clinical profile, management, and outcomes in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with EPN. All patients of EPN admitted to emergency medical services were included in the study. Patients were grouped into diabetic and nondiabetic EPN, and the eventual predictors of mortality were assessed. The mean age of patients was 55.43 years, with 36 (65.7%) female patients. Mortality was found to be 18.86%. On univariate analysis, the factors significantly associated with mortality include dyspnea at presentation, altered consciousness, blood pressure <90 systolic, oliguria, decreased platelet count (<100,000/mm[3]), urine culture positive for Escherichia coli, hyponatremia (Na <132), hyperkalemia (K >5.0), higher computerized tomography (CT) grade, and emergency nephrectomy as an intervention modality (P <0.05). Mortality was comparable among diabetics and nondiabetics. Diabetics had a lower CT score and higher creatinine (>2 mg/dL) as compared to nondiabetics. Most patients having urolithiasis were nondiabetic. Although nondiabetics had a higher CT score as compared to diabetics, the mortality in nondiabetics and diabetics was equivalent. This may suggest that either diabetics have a rapid deterioration of EPN status or intercurrent metabolic factors in diabetics may contribute to mortality among diabetics. Raised serum creatinine and immunocompromised status owing to diabetes may also play a role.

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