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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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SPECIAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 655-675
Consensus guidelines of cardiovascular risk assessment in kidney transplantation in Saudi Arabia: Review of current practice, evidence, and recommendations

1 Adult Transplant Nephrology, Department of Organ Transplant Center, King Abdulaziz Medical City; King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Transplant Anesthesia, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Nephrology, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Cardiology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
5 Organ Transplant Center, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
6 Department of Cardiology, Prince Sultan Military Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
7 Department of Renal Transplant, King Faisal Specialty Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
8 Department of Renal Transplant, King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
9 Department of Cardiology, King Fahad King Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
10 Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplant, King Fahad King Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Ziad Arabi
Adult Transplant Nephrology, Department of Organ Transplant Center, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.289452

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Screening for cardiovascular (CV) disease before transplant is common. However, the clinical utility of screening asymptomatic transplant candidates remains unclear. There is a large degree of variation among the practices of the different transplant centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and among the international guidelines. Opinions are mostly based on mixed observational data with a great potential for bias. When compared to the Western countries, renal-transplant candidates in the KSA are likely to have longer dialysis vintage, higher prevalence of catheter use, higher rate of uncontrolled hyperparathyroidism, and high prevalence of diabetes. These factors are likely to expose renal-transplant candidates to a higher CV risk than those in Western countries. In the absence of any published guideline for CV risk assessment of the renal-transplant candidate in the KSA, we present these guidelines as the first published guidelines in the KSA. These guidelines review the pertinent aspects from the most recent American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for cardiac disease evaluation and management among kidney-transplant candidates and reflect on the local practices in the KSA. These guidelines overview many of the daily- encountered challenges in renal transplantation such as the indications for stress testing, screening coronary angiogram and prophylactic revascularization, screening and management of pulmonary hypertension, cardiac surveillance while on the waiting list and duration of dual-antiplatelet therapy before renal transplant. These guidelines were reviewed by a team of consultant nephrologists, cardiologists, anesthesiologists, and transplant surgeons from six major transplant centers in the KSA. The guidelines aim to standardize the practices of CV risk assessment in kidney transplantation in the KSA, according to the most up-to-date available evidence. The expected impact of these guidelines on the current practices is also reviewed here.

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