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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 191-198
Renal Stones and Risk Factors in Jeddah and Riyadh

1 Pediatric Nephrology Center of Excellence, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2 Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Shahd S Alblowi
Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box: 14071, Jeddah
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.318523

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Saudi Arabia has extremely hot climate for most of the year; this is associated with the risk of developing nephrolithiasis. This retrospective research aimed to investigate the current prevalence, manifestation, mode of treatment, and risk factors of renal stones in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2018 to June 2019 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study included 1031 participants aged ≥18 years from Jeddah (n=652, 63.3%) and Riyadh (n=379, 36.8%). Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (minimum-maximum) or number (%). Comparisons between patients with and without renal stones were made using the Chi-square test and unpaired Student’s t-test as appropriate. The odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was determined for the risk factors of renal stones. The prevalence of renal stones was 16.9% among the participants. A significantly high risk for renal stones was associated with male sex (2.96; 95% CI: 2.08–4.20, P = 0.0001) and age group of 34–40 years (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.005–2.103, P = 0.047). Hypertension was more common in patients with renal stones than those without renal stones (9.5% vs.4.6%, P = 0.013). The percentage of patients who took diuretics was significantly higher among those with renal stones than among those without renal stones (11.2% vs. 3.5%, P = 0.001). Of the 169 patients with renal stones, 58.0% had a positive family history of renal stones, and 23.7% had a history of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The symptoms of renal stones were pain (86.4%), hematuria (11.2%), fever (2.4%), and others (0.6%). Of all the patients, 43.8% took medication. For most patients, the stones passed spontaneously (67.5%), while 23.7% underwent lithotripsy, and 1.5% received stents. In this study, we found a higher prevalence of renal stones two major cities in Saudi Arabia in Jeddah and Riyadh, at 16.4%. Risk factors included male sex and age group of 34–40 years. A significant number of patients with renal stones have a family history of renal stones and a history of UTI. Loin pain and hematuria were the two major clinical presenting symptoms for renal stones. In the majority of patients, the renal stones passed spontaneously without the need for lithotripsy or surgery.

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