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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1646-1654
Emphysematous Pyelonephritis in Type 2 Diabetes – Clinical Profile and Management

1 Department of Surgery and Department of Urology, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Urology, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Surgery and Department of Medicine, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Medicine, Eras Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Sanjay Kumar Bhat
Department of Surgery, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.352425

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Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a rare but life-threatening acute suppurative infection of the kidney among diabetics. There is no current consensus on the management of EPN. A prospective observational study was conducted at the Department of General Surgery, RML Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, as well as at Eras Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow, from 2015 to 2018 to look for clinical, microbial profile and treatment outcome of diabetic patients with EPN. A total of 76 diabetic patients diagnosed with pyelonephritis were identified, of which 15 patients were diagnosed with EPN (26.3%). The mean age of the patients was 58.4 ± 6.5 years. The mean duration of diabetes was 5.3 ± 3.3 years. 12 (82%) of the 15 patients with diabetes mellitus had a glycosylated hemoglobin level higher than 7.5. Renal dysfunction at presentation was seen in 11 (73.3%) patients. Among the unilateral involvement, the left kidney was more affected. Escherichia coli in 11 (73.3%), Klebsiella sp. in one (6.6%), Pseudomonas in one (6.6%), and one each with polymicrobial and fungal urinary tract infection, respectively. Of 15 EPN patients, 13 (86.6 %) survived, and one (6.6 %) expired. Two of them underwent nephrectomy both survived. All patients with Stage I, II, and IIIa EPN (n = 12) were managed with antibiotics with or without percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD). In EPN Stage IIIb/IV (n = 3), all the three (20%) patients were managed with antibiotics and PCD, and later two (13.3%) needed nephrectomy. Only time to diagnosis, altered sensorium, shock at presentation, and thrombocytopenia were associated with poor outcome in EPN patients (P <0.05) Multiple logistic regression tests showed shock (P = 0.04) and disturbance of consciousness (P = 0.05) on (hospital admission as being the independent factors for poor outcome. EPN in diabetics needs a high index of suspicion, timely diagnosis, and good multidisciplinary approach with adequate antibiotics and surgical management for better patient outcomes.

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