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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 122-131
Clinicohistological Profile and Outcomes of Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis: A Prospective Study from North India

1 Department of Nephrology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2 Department of Nephrology, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Preet Mohinder Sohal
Department of Nephrology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.367805

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The prevalence of this rare and fatal entity varies in different regions and ethnicities. The objective of this study was to determine clinicopathological characteristics and predictors of outcome in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN). We aimed to prospectively study the clinicopathological profile and determine the predictors of renal outcome in patients with RPGN. This study included 40 patients of biopsy-proven RPGN. The diagnosis of RPGN was based on renal histology showing crescents in >50% of glomeruli. All patients were given induction with intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone (0.5 g) for three days followed by maintenance with oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) and six IV pulses of cyclophosphamide (0.5 g) given fortnightly followed by maintenance therapy with azathioprine (2 mg/kg/day). The outcomes were recorded. Three-fourth of the patients (77.4%) required renal replacement therapy (RRT) at diagnosis. More than half of patients (57.5%) were antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies mediated. Immune complex and anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease constituted 25% and 17.5%, respectively. Clinical features, biochemical parameters, histological features, and type of RPGN were analyzed for association with primary outcomes. Entry serum creatinine, entry estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), RRT on admission, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial infiltrates were the parameters which showed association with primary outcomes of the study (P <0.05). In secondary outcomes, infections were the most common (55%), followed by neutropenia (40%). One-fourth of the patients (25%) died during the course of the study. Cause of mortality was infections (50%), cardiovascular system (30%), stroke (10%), and unknown (10%). Our prospective study from north India shows that RPGN is not an uncommon cause of renal failure and there is preponderance in the elderly patients (>60 years). Pauci-immune RPGN is the most common cause of RPGN followed by immune-complex and anti-GBM disease. Entry serum creatinine, eGFR, and RRT on admission predicted the outcome.

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