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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 72-79
Comparative Evaluation of Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Pathologic Features of Kidney Disease in Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy-Experienced Patients at a Tertiary Health Facility in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria

1 Department of Medicine, University of Maiduguri; Renal Unit, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Borno State, Nigeria
2 Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
3 Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
4 Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
5 Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Mohammad Maina Sulaiman
Department of Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.367828

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Infection of the kidneys by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is known to cause kidney disease. HIV-associated nephropathy occurs with variable prevalence rates in various communities and is found to be higher among sub-Saharan Africans. The disease has not been studied in Northeastern Nigeria. This study was aimed at comparing the prevalence, clinical and histo-pathologic features of kidney disease among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-experienced and HAART-naive patients in northeastern Nigeria. Four hundred HIV-infected (200 HAART-experienced and 200 HAART-naïve) patients were recruited consecutively from the ART clinic. Their socio-demographic and laboratory data including CD4+ cell counts and viral loads were obtained and documented. Out of the 200 study participants in the HAART-experienced arm, 21 (10.5%) had kidney disease whereas 61 (30.5%) participants in the HAART-naïve group had kidney disease. Their mean ages were 41.43 ± 11.04 years and 37.42 ± 9.96 years in the HAART-experienced and HAART-naïve groups, respectively. The mean serum creatinine (SCr), CD4+ cell counts, and viral load were 185.67 ± 221.80 μmol/L, 493.26 ± 241.97/mm3, and 8,856.79 ± 19,747.11/mL in the HAART-experienced group, respectively. In the HAART-naïve group, the mean SCr, CD4+ cell count, and viral load were 141.88 ± 130.56 μmol/L, 270.00 ± 154.65 cells/mm3, and 139,217.70 ± 12,598.50/mL. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) was the most common histologic diagnosis in 64.7% of kidney biopsies. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease among the study population included age, low weight and body mass index, high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 viral load, low CD4+ cell counts, low hemoglobin (Hb), and proteinuria. The prevalence of kidney disease is higher among HAART-naïve HIV-infected patients than in patients who are HAART-experienced patients. Factors associated with development of kidney disease included advanced age, low CD4+ cell counts, high viral load, proteinuria, and HAART-naivety. FSGS is the most common histologic diagnosis in our study population.

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