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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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    Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-February 2021
Volume 32 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-288

Online since Wednesday, June 16, 2021

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EDITORIAL  

Pharm.D.s and M.D.s in the Transplant World – Friends, Foes, Competitors or All are in Evolution? Highly accessed article p. 1
Mahmoud M Mohamed, Tibor Fulop, Karim Magdy Soliman
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318510  PMID:34145109
Mutual trust, efforts, and commitment between patients and providers are essential for a successful, long-lasting renal transplant. From the renal transplant recipient’s side, non-adherence to the medication has gained recognition as a predominant cause of late antibody-mediated rejection. Since the early 1970s, pharmacists have been involved in the care of transplant recipients and the incorporation of transplant pharmacists has improved the outcomes in solid organ transplantation. Such involvement of clinical pharmacists extends beyond improving graft outcomes: various studies demonstrated benefits in the care of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, with commensurate reduction of cardiovascular risk. From a unique perspective, this overview aimed to discuss the emerging role of Pharm. D.s and clinical pharmacists in general as it relates to team care, education of patients and healthcare providers and the sometimes conflicting relationship between physicians and pharmacists. Additional clinically relevant studies from culturally diverse settings are needed to explore the responsibilities of clinical team members to ensure optimized teamwork efforts without overlapping and duplication of efforts.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Essence Core: Fluid Management in Acute Kidney Injury Highly accessed article p. 9
Fatma Ibrahim Albeladi
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318552  PMID:34145110
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by sudden decrease in kidney functioning, with increased serum creatinine levels and impairment of vital kidney functions such as fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base homeostasis. The key to perioperative AKI management is accomplishing optimal intravenous fluid therapy, involving guided fluid resuscitation and fluid balance management including proper fluid removal. In the present review, we highlighted the importance of fluid-based management of AKI, which is a critical process, as both reduced and increased levels of body fluids can have detrimental effects on the patient. While fluid depletion is commonly the targeted approach for fluid management, fluid overload is also largely recognized as a major contributor to worsening the outcomes. With the wide range of available fluid types, such as colloids and crystalloids, detailed knowledge and role of each are necessary before making the choice of a treatment strategy to be employed. While each of these has associated pros and cons, crystalloids are largely accepted as the treatment of choice due to better outcomes and affordability. Nevertheless, the dose and choice of fluid therapy must be goal irected and customized based on the patient's condition, ruling out the confounding factors.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Urinary Tumor Necrosis Factor-Like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis (uTWEAK) and Urinary Monocyte Chemo-attractant Protein-1 (uMCP-1): Promising Biomarkers of Lupus Nephritis Activity? Highly accessed article p. 19
Dina Samir Elsaid, Rasha Ali Abdel Noor, Kamal Ali Shalaby, Riham Abdel-Hamid Haroun
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318522  PMID:34145111
There is no single biomarker to detect lupus nephritis (LN) activity. Renal biopsy is still the gold standard method but it is invasive and mainly used in the initial assessment of the patients. Urinary tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (uTWEAK) and urinary monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (uMCP-1) can be secreted in the urine of active LN. The aim of the study is to assess the potential role of uTWEAK and uMCP-1 in lupus patients and to determine their correlation with disease activity. This is a case-control study conducted on a total of 114 subjects; 92 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and 22 healthy volunteers. The patients were recruited from the rheumatology unit at the internal medicine department, Tanta University Hospital, Tanta, Egypt. The patients and controls were subjected to full history taking, complete clinical examination, routine laboratory tests, uTWEAK and uMCP-1 measurement, assessment of the disease activity using SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), and renal SLEDAI (rSLEDAI) scores. uTWEAK and uMCP-1 levels were higher in SLE with active nephritis group than those of other SLE groups and controls. There was a significant positive correlation between uTWEAK and uMCP-1 levels in lupus patients with proteinuria, anti-dsDNA, SLEDAI and r-SLEDAI and a negative correlation with C3 and C4. TWEAK showed a sensitivity of 80.43% and 100% and specificity of 50% and 100% in detecting lupus activity and LN activity, respectively. Furthermore, uMCP-1 showed a sensitivity of 82.6% and 100% and specificity of 50% and 100% in detecting lupus activity and LN activity, respectively. uTWEAK and uMCP-1 are new, easily obtained, accurate markers with high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of LN activity.
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Prevalence of Vascular Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 4 and 5 Patients and its Correlation with Inflammatory Markers of Atherosclerosis p. 30
Himanshu Verma, Sham Sunder, BB Sharma, Neera Sharma, Rashi Verma
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318546  PMID:34145112
Vascular calcification is one of the independent risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This study evaluated the prevalence of vascular calcification in Indian patients with CKD stages 4 and 5. This was a prospective study conducted between January 2011 and June 2012. CKD stage 4 and 5 patients of either sex aged >18 years were screened for aortic vascular calcification using digital X-ray lumbar spine and multislice computed tomography (CT) scan. In addition, details of inflammatory markers [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin (IL-6)] were also collected. A total of 150 patients (stage 4, n = 98; stage 5, n = 56) were screened for vascular calcification, and the mean age was 56.56 years. Patients with CKD stage 5 had significantly higher (P ≤0.05) serum creatinine and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein than CKD stage 4. Significantly, more patients with CKD stage 5 had a history of CVD. A total of 113 (75.3%) patients had vascular calcification [aortic calcification index (ACI) >0] with significantly higher prevalence in CKD stage 5 (85.72%) as compared to CKD stage 4 (69.15%). Patients having high aortic calcification (ACI >20%) were older (P = 0.0013); had a higher frequency of diabetes, and CVD; and had significantly (P <0.05) higher blood urea, serum creatinine, phosphorus, Ca × PO4 product, intact parathyroid hormone, hs-CRP, and IL-6. The higher CKD stage was associated with a higher prevalence of vascular calcification and higher aortic calcification index (ACI). CT techniques (electron beam CT and multislice CT) are the gold standards for detection and quantification of progression of vascular calcification.
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Clinicopathological Correlation with Mesangial C4d Deposition in Primary Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy - A Descriptive study p. 42
Gnanapriya Vellaisamy, Renuka Malipatel, S Renuka, Pritilata Rout
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318547  PMID:34145113
In immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, activation of lectin pathway leads to severe renal damage and more pronounced histological damage. As C4d is a marker of lectin pathway activation, the presence of mesangial C4d positivity will help in identifying those patients at risk. The study was conducted to study the prevalence of mesangial C4d positivity in patients with primary IgA nephropathy and to compare the clinical and histopathological features with C4d-positive and C4d-negative cases. It is a retrospective study conducted for four years. The inclusion criterion was IgA nephropathy with a minimum of four viable glomeruli. Biopsies with >25% of nonsclerotic glomeruli with mesangial positivity will be considered as positive for C4d. Seventy-six patients of IgA nephropathy were included of which mesangial C4d positivity was noted in 33 patients (43%). The mean age was 35 years. The male:female ratio was 2.3:1. The most common presentation was edema (56%) followed by microscopic hematuria (28%). Fifty-four patients were hypertensive. Among the clinical and laboratory parameters, absence of hematuria (P = 0.04) and presence of proteinuria (P = 0.02) showed a significant association with C4d positivity. The histological parameters in Oxford classification which had significant association with C4d positivity were segmental sclerosis (P = 0.01) and tubular atrophy (P = 0.001). Among 45 patients on follow-up with a maximum duration of 51 months, 10 developed end-stage renal disease of which four had C4d expression (0.05%) in the biopsy. Nearly half of IgA nephropathy patients have mesangial C4d positivity. Elevated creatinine with chronicity changes is more common in C4d-positive patients. Hence, C4d can be used as a marker for poor prognosis.
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Barriers to Kidney Transplantation among Adults on Maintenance Dialysis in Western Region Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study p. 49
Sami Alobaidi, Naji Dwid, Nada Salem, Fahtima Mehdawi, Abdullah Kashgary, Hanadi Alhozali, Rana Nablawi, Enad Alsolami, Faissal Shaheen, Ahmed Akl
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318548  PMID:34145114
Kidney transplantation (KT) is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. However, in Saudi Arabia, KT accounts for only 4.5% of the total existing renal replacement therapies in 2016. This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2017 to January 2018. The aim was to assess the main barriers to the low KT rate in the Saudi community. Data were obtained by direct interviewing using a specifically pre-coded and pre-tested online questionnaire. A total of 321 adult hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (PD) (hemodialysis and PD, respectively) patients eligible for KT were selected from several dialysis units in Jeddah, accounting for 11% of the total dialysis population in Jeddah. The mean age was 49.9 ± 14.9 years, and 62.1% were male. Twenty-six percent were employed, and 88.2% were Saudis. Of those interviewed, 90.7% had been counseled for KT mostly by the nephrologist (86.5%) and 178 (55.5%) were referred for pre-transplant evaluation and 92 (28.6 %) were on the active transplant list. The most common barriers were lack of donor availability for 107 patients (40.5%), 58 patients (22%) worried about long-term complications, and 24 (9.1%) worried about surgical complications. Only 17 patients (6.4 %) reported financial constraints as the main reason for not having a KT, especially in non-Saudi patients. Additional initiatives to promote and improve the education and knowledge about kidney donation and the current outcome of KT is needed to improve the transplant rate in the country.
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Acute Kidney Injury as a Risk Factor for Cerebrovascular Disease Outcome among Patients Presenting with Stroke in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Cohort Study p. 60
Fatma I Albeladi, Iman Mohamed Wahby Salem, Saeed Ahmed Bugshan, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz Alghamdi
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318549  PMID:34145115
Patients suffering from stroke may develop different complications including acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI affects mortality among the stroke patients. The association between stroke and AKI despite extensive research has been not completely understood. The study aimed to determine an AKI as an independent poor risk factor of cerebrovascular disease outcome among the stroke patients. Our objectives were to estimate AKI incidence among stroke patients at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between 2013 and 2017 and assess the major risk factors related to AKI among stroke patients. The research population was sourced from the publicly available KAUH records from 2013 to 2017. The total number of stroke cases was 717 with a mean age of 63.94 ± 15.70 years. As many as 83.5% of cases had no AKI and 16.5% were suffered from AKI among total stroke patients studied. Furthermore, 74.1% of stroke patients were alive compared to 25.9% reported dead. The study concluded that AKI incidence is higher in stroke patients after admission immediately or during hospitalization. As such, the renal function file could be used as an early indicator upon stroke patients’ admission to health-care facilities. Prevention and control of AKI seem to be very important among patients with stroke.
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Factors Contributing to Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis: Comparing Triple Cuff Saudi Catheter to Double Cuff Tenckhoff Catheter: A 12-Year Observational Study p. 69
Abdullah K Al-Hwiesh, Ibrahiem Saeed Abdul-Rahman, Amani Al-Hwiesh, Abdulrahman Taha, Rawan Amir, Nehad Al-Audah, Muaz M Abdel Galil, Mohammed A Nasr El-Din, Badran Alhwiesh, Khaled Alotaibi, Jose R Fiore
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318550  PMID:34145116
Very few detailed descriptive studies focusing on peritonitis in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) have been published. Most of the current information is available through from either study with the limited number of patients or isolated case reports. We conducted an observational study of our PD-peritonitis database over the past 12 years to study the clinical profile and the outcomes of peritonitis episodes in our PD center. A total of 1123 patients (male: 59.5%) with 319 episodes of peritonitis were identified. Of the patients, 130 (11.6%) were considered immunocompromised (steroid use, failed renal transplant, systemic lupus erythematosus, malignancy) and 468 (41.7%) had diabetes mellitus. The total number of bacterial peritonitis episodes was 319; of these 226 (70.8%) were seen with double cuff Tenckhoff PD catheter and 93 (29.2%) occurred with triple-cuff Saudi PD catheter (P = 0.0001). Of all peritonitis episodes 170 (53.3%) episodes were caused by a single Gram-positive organism, 124 (38.9%) episodes by a single Gram-negative organism, and 25 (7.8%) were polymicrobial. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were responsible for most cases of Gram-positive peritonitis (n = 110, 64.7%), while Escherichia coli was the causative organism in 67 (54.0%) of the single Gram-negative episodes. Peritonitis episodes due to Gram-positive organisms had a better outcome than those caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Fifteen (4.7%) of the 319 episodes resulted in death in 13 patients. In 79 (24.8%) episodes, the patients had to be transferred to hemodialysis because of unresolved peritonitis. Resolution rate was 75.2% (240 episodes) which was influenced by PD catheter type, PD duration and the number of days peritoneal fluid effluent remained above 100 cells/μL. Other modifiable and non-modifiable factors had no effect on the resolution rate. Peritonitis episodes due to Gram-positive organisms had a better outcome than those with Gram-negative or polymicrobial etiology. Peritonitis resolution rates were worse with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Diabetes, current steroid use, and exit-site/tunnel infections seemed to have limited influence on the peritonitis outcome. Type of PD catheter (double Tenckhoff vs triple-cuff Saudi catheter), duration of PD and the number of days peritoneal fluid effluent remained >100 cells/μL were the only factors with significant effects on the outcome.
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Incidence and Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 Highly accessed article p. 84
Emad Abdallah, Bassam Al Helal, Reem Asad, Mohamed Hemida, Ehab Nawar, Mohammad Kamal, Mahmoud Reda, Ahmed Baharia, Ahmed Galal, Ali Hassan, Ahmed Awaga, Mostafa Salam, Abdelfatah Shama
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318551  PMID:34145117
Patients with more severe cases of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) may be at greater risk for developing acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of our study was to analyze incidence and outcomes of AKI in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Our study prospectively followed about 198 patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), Al Adan Hospital, Kuwait, for developing AKI and outcomes. Age, gender, nationality, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, bronchial asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were analyzed. The need for mechanical ventilation (MV), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, inotropes, and medications was recorded. Causes of AKI, indication of dialysis, dialysis modality, dialysis outcomes, and mortality were analyzed. Our study reported that61 out of 198 (30.8%) ICU patients positive for COVID-19, developed AKI according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes definition of AKI. Forty-eight out of 61 (79%) patients need continuous renal replacement therapy using continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. Thirty-seven (61%) out of 61 patients were with severe sepsis syndrome. The most common cause of AKI was sepsis, cytokine storm, hypovolemia, heart failure, MV, and nephrotoxic drugs. Twenty-four patients (39%) out of 61 patients died, and the most common cause of death was sepsis, cytokine storm with respiratory failure, heart failure, and AKI. The outcome of AKI was as follows: six patients (10%) had complete recovery, five patients had partial recovery (8%), and 26 (43%) patients became dialysis dependent. Incidence of AKI is high in ICU COVID-19 patients and is associated with poor outcomes and high mortality. Early detection and specific therapy of kidney changes, including adequate hemodynamic support and avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs, may help to improve critically ill patients with COVID-19.
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Prevalence of Cardiac Abnormalities in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cross-sectional Study from a Developing Country p. 92
Afshan Ehsan, Madiha Aziz, Ali Asghar Lanewala, Aftab Mehmood, Seema Hashmi
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318553  PMID:34145118
Improved therapeutic modalities in chronic kidney diseases (CKD) children and consequent extension of life expectancy, draws more attention towards secondary complications. Cardiovascular adaptations precipitating such terminal events, begin in pre-dialysis CKD. Hence, it’s imperative to identify modifiable risk factors to direct care and resources in haltering CKD progression, evade long-term dialysis and anticipate kidney transplantation to avert cardiac complications in predialysis period. One hundred and six pre-dialysis patients aged one year to 15 years, with estimated glomerular filtration rate of <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 and proteinuria were included. Patient’s history, weight, height and blood pressures (BPs) performed. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) calculated to correct for patient height to determine raised values of >38.6 g/m2.7 and of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) >55 g/m2.7. Shortening fraction and ejection fraction measured to assess systolic function. Diastolic function assessed by Doppler measuring the mitral inflow (e/a) ratio. Hemoglobin, calcium phosphorous product, parathyroid hormone and hypertension measured to assess cardiac risk factor. The total prevalence of cardiac abnormality was found in 66.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 57.6%–75.2%. Raised LVMI was seen in 64%, among which 34.9% had LVH. Diastolic and systolic dysfunction was found in 12.2% and 11.3% respectively. The cardiac abnormality was more prevalent in CKD grade IV and V. The independent risk factors were anemia and abnormal diastolic BP index which increase the risk for LVH by 3-fold and 5-fold respectively. Proportion of cardiac abnormalities were more prevalent in CKD IV and V. Anemia and diastolic hypertension were independent risk factors for LVH.
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Estimation of Tacrolimus Clearance in Saudi Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients p. 101
Saeed Alqahtani, Maha Alenazi, Abdullah Alsultan, Emad Alsarhani
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318511  PMID:34145119
Tacrolimus is commonly used in adult kidney transplant patients. Only few studies have so far described the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in the Saudi population. Thus, the goal of this study is to determine the population pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in Saudi adult kidney transplant recipients and to identify the factors that explain variability. We performed a retrospective chart review of adult patients who received oral tacrolimus at two centers. We developed the population pharmacokinetic models using Monolix 4.4. The factors screened for influence on these parameters were weight, age, gender, liver function tests, and creatinine clearance. The analysis included a total of 149 tacrolimus plasma concentrations from 139 patients. A one-compartment open model with linear absorption and elimination adequately described the data. The average parameter estimates for apparent clearance (CL/F) and apparent volume of distribution (V/F) were 9.1 L/h and 912 L, respectively. The interindividual variabilities (coefficients of variation) in CL/F and V/F were 20% and 18%, respectively. Aspartate aminotransferase was identified to be the main covariate that influences tacrolimus CL/F. In conclusion, the population pharmacokinetic model of tacrolimus was established and a significant covariate of the model was identified. These findings offer a rationale for the personalization of tacrolimus dosing regimens. Further studies are required to understand the factors that may influence the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and assist in drug dosage decisions.
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The Impact of Role of Pharmacists in Renal Dosage Adjustment Program on Renal Drug Dosing Errors: A Quasi-Experimental Study p. 111
Bashaer Y Alqurashi, Pansy S Elsamadisi, Mohammed A Aseeri, Sherine E Ismail
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318512  PMID:34145120
Studies have reported high prevalence of inappropriate dosing in patients with renal impairment, which was significantly reduced with pharmacists’ interventions. The objective of this study was to assess the proportions of renal drug dosing errors following the implementation of pharmacists-led renal drug dosing adjustment program. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted at the King Abdul Aziz Medical City, a tertiary teaching hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The study comprised of 3 phases. The pre-phase and post-phase evaluated drug orders for dosing appropriateness. During the intervention phase, a renal drug dosing adjustment program was implemented, which included educational sessions on dosing in renal insufficiency and a renal drug dosing guidance. The primary outcome was to assess the change in the proportions of dosing errors following the intervention. In the pre-phase, inappropriate dosing was noted in 20.1% (70/348) of orders that required dosing adjustment. Among the total dosing errors, 44.2% (31/70) were further corrected, and pharmacists have documented intervention in 48.3% (15/31) of the corrected orders. In the post-phase, inappropriate dosing was noted in 21.9% (76/346) of orders that required dosing adjustment. Among the total dosing errors, 39.4% (30/76) were further corrected, and pharmacists have documented intervention in 66.6% (20/30) of the corrected orders. There was no statistically significant difference in inappropriate drug dosing between pre-phase and post-phase with a P = 0.56. The intervention was not associated with significant reduction in renal dosing errors, although pharmacist involvement in the corrected orders orders increased after the implementation of the intervention. This may indicate the need to integrate renal dosing guidance into the hospital prescribing system to optimize drug dosing in renal patients.
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Paclitaxel-Coated Balloons Compared to Plain Balloon Angioplasty in the Management of Dysfunctional Arteriovenous Fistulae: A Single-Center Randomized Clinical Trial p. 118
Mohammad Arabi, Refaat Salman, Abdulaziz Alharbi, Yousof Alzahrani, Omar Bashir, Shahbaz Qazi, Mubarak Abdallah, Mahfooz Farooqui, Fayez Hejaili, Mohammad Almoaiqel
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318513  PMID:34145121
The study aimed to compare paclitaxel-coated balloons (PCB) to percutaneous transluminal plain balloon angioplasty (PTA) in the management of dysfunctional arteriovenous fistulae. This single institution randomized controlled trial was approved by the institutional and local review boards and is registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov website. The study was initially designed to recruit a total of 92 patients. However, recruitment was terminated after the release of the meta-analysis that raised concerns about the potential increased risk of death associated with PCB. A total of 23 patients with nonthrombosed dysfunctional fistulae (mean age 67 years, 12 females) were recruited (PCB = 12) from October 2017 to September 2018. The fistulae were radiocephalic (n = 5), brachiocephalic (n = 12), brachiobasilic (n = 6), and seven immature fistulae. After a 2-min predilatation of the target lesions, patients were randomized to receive an additional 2-min of angioplasty with either a plain balloon or PCB (Lutonix). The primary endpoint was fistula patency at 12 months. The secondary endpoints included technical and clinical success, time-to-reintervention, survival at 12 months, and complications. The primary endpoint of fistula patency at 12 months was met in three patients treated with PCB and two patients treated with PTA. The all-cause mortality at one year was 8% (n = 2), both were in the PTA group. Treatment failed in restoring adequate fistula function in four patients [2 PCB with immature arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and two PTA with mature AVF]. Three patients were lost to follow-up (1 PCB, 2 PTA). Of the remaining patients (6 PCB and 4 PTA), there was no significant difference in the median time-to-reintervention between the two groups (148 vs. 174 days). Two minor complications were recorded which did not require any additional treatment. Although this trial was terminated prematurely, there appears to be no significant difference between PCB and PTA in maintaining fistula patency and reducing the time-to-reintervention. No mortality was recorded in the PCB group during the study period.
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Impact of Therapeutic Dose Monitoring of Mycophenolic Acid on the Outcome of Live-Donor Kidney Transplant Recipients - A Prospective Controlled Study p. 128
Ahmed Abdelfattah Denewar, Ezzat Mostafa Mohamed, Mabrouk Ibrahim M. Ismael, Amani Mostafa Ismail, Ayman Fathi Refaie
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318514  PMID:34145122
Immunosuppressive therapy is the backbone to renal transplantation. Although an adequate level of immunosuppression is required to dampen the immune response to the allograft, the level of chronic immunosuppression is slowly decreased over time (as the risk of acute rejection decreases) to help lower the overall risk of infection and malignancy. Several studies have discussed the clinical use of therapeutic drug monitoring of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in kidney transplant recipients. This prospective single-center study included 88 patients with end-stage renal disease who were transplanted in Mansoura Urology and Nephrology Center from living related donors, from the beginning of February 2016 to the end of December 2016. Eight patients were excluded, the remaining 80 patients were divided into two groups; the study group (40 patients) who were followed up using therapeutic trough level monitoring of MPA and, control group (40 patients) who were followed up using the fixed-dose of Mycophenolate according to our local immunosuppressive protocol. These patients were followed up for one year posttransplantation with regard to graft function, rejection episodes, gastrointestinal (GI), and hematological side effects, the incidence of infection or malignancy, patient survival, and graft survival. Fifteen patients from the study group (37.5%) needed dose reduction of MPA, no patients needed to increase the dose. Our study showed insignificant differences regarding the patients’ characteristics and demographic data. Significantly higher incidence of GI manifestations was noted in the control group (P = 0.001). Although the higher frequency of incidence of infection, anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia was seen in the fixed- dose group, the difference was statistically insignificant. Regarding proteinuria and post-transplant diabetes mellitus, comparable data were obtained. Significantly higher percentage of recipients in the study group is still having normally functioning grafts (P = 0.02). Furthermore, higher percent of recipients in the control group died with functioning graft after one year of follow-up (P = 0.04). There were insignificant differences as regarding patient and graft survival. The decrease in the dose of MPA reduced the annual cost by around six thousand US dollars. Our results suggest that adopting therapeutic dose monitoring strategy during follow-up of kidney transplant recipients is adequate. Longer-term studies with a larger sample size may be needed to support this policy.
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Socio-academic Factors Influencing Knowledge About Organ Donation among Medical Students in Paraguay, 2018 p. 137
TR Aveiro-Robalo, X Paredes-González, C Recalde-Hellman, E Barboza-Molinas, P Cardozo, B Ojeda, E Ortega, Christian R Mejia
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318515  PMID:34145123
Organ donation currently is an extremely important issue in public health. Proper information about the details of this topic is extremely important, but is not yet widespread among the public. This study was carried out with the aim to determine the level of knowledge about organ donation among medical students in Paraguay and associated socio-academic factors influencing their level of knowledge. This was an analytical cross-sectional study, based on a multicenter survey among university medical students. About 68.7% (235) of the respondents were preclinical students doing basic sciences. Two aspects were evaluated, the knowledge regarding the donation of the organs and the socio-academic factors, then both the aspects were evaluated through bivariate and multivariate analyses. There were 342 respondents with a median age of 22 years (interquartile range: 20–23 years) of which 263 (77%) were women. One hundred and eighty-eight (55%) reported not knowing the law that protects and regulates the activities of organ and tissue donation in Paraguay. In the multivariate analysis, the highest frequency of a good level of knowledge of organ donation occurred in those who were older [RPA: 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.12, P = 0.007] and in two of the universities evaluated (both with values P <0.012). On the contrary, those who were preclinical students, in general, had a lower level of knowledge of organ donation (RPa: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.46–0.79; value P <0.001). Our findings denote relatively a poor knowledge of organ donation in some socio-academic subsets. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies to increase the knowledge about the subject, by creating opportunities by way of discussions and debates among the students at all academic levels and also by conducting academic conferences on the subject.
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Chronic Kidney Disease after Snake Envenomation Induced Acute Kidney Injury p. 146
Kishore Ariga, Tarun Kumar Dutta, Satish Haridasan, Priyamvada Sivan Pillai Puthenpurackal, KT Harichandrakumar, Sreejith Parameswaran
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318516  PMID:34145124
Snake bite is an important cause for acute kidney injury (AKI) in the tropics and the victims are often otherwise healthy young adults without conventional risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Available literature on long-term outcomes of AKI –snake envenomation is limited, with only two small retrospective studies with follow-up periods of two years or less. In a hospital-based prospective and retrospective follow-up study, all consecutive adult patients who developed AKI and discharged alive were recruited in the prospective group and for retrospective analysis, we retrieved medical records of patients hospitalized with snake bite from the digitized medical records. Clinical and biochemical characteristics during hospitalization and on follow-up were collected. We recruited 193 patients with snake bite and AKI in a prospective (140) and a retrospective (53) group. Of the 193 AKI patients, 162 (84%) had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the time of discharge from hospital and at follow-up (n = 171) 29 (16.9%) had eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Of the 116 patients with follow-up beyond one year, 30 (26%) had CKD. Overall 26 to 28% of patients went on to develop CKD depending on the duration of follow-up. Only very few (1.16%) patients progressed to ESRD. This is the largest follow-up study so far on snake bite-related AKI and provides further evidence that snake bite-associated AKI causes CKD on long-term follow-up. Older age, diabetes, severe AKI, and inadequate anti-snake venom administration were risk factors for the development of CKD on follow-up.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS Top

Study of Uromodulin Gene Polymorphism in Egyptian Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease p. 157
Mostafa Abdelsalam, Mohamad Motawea, Fadyazmy Kyrillos, Ahmed Abdel-Razik, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Ahmed Abdel-Wahab
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318517  PMID:34145125
Uromodulin (UMOD) gene polymorphism has been linked with end-stage renal disease. In this research, we studied the prevalence of UMOD rs42993393 T>C in Egyptian hemodialysis (HD) patients and the blood level of UMOD in those patients. The study was a case–control study and included 100 patients on regular HD and 100 healthy control subjects. The blood samples from the studied groups were subjected to the determination of UMOD blood level and molecular study of UMOD rs42993393 T>C genotype by polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism. The serum UMOD level was significantly low in patients (38.6 7.6 ng/mL) compared to control subjects (221.3 ± 54.2, P = 0.0001). On the other hand, the UMOD rs42993393T>C was significantly increased in TC in patients (28%, odds ratio 1.3–1.0–2.0) compared to controls (22%, P = 0.03), and there was a significant increase in CC in patients (10%) compared to control subjects (3%; P = 0.0001). The T allele was significantly increased in controls compared to patients with a significant increase in C allele in patients compared to controls (P = 0.01). The present study highlights the prevalence of UMOD gene polymorphism at rs42993393T>C. There was a significant prevalence of C allele and C genotypes in HD patients. This finding may indicate that this allele may be a predisposing genotype for renal failure in susceptible patients. On the other hand, the significant reduction of serum UMOD in patients with end-stage renal disease may be attributed to the reduced functioning renal mass.
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Effectiveness of Baby Oil Therapy for Uremic Pruritus in Hemodialysis Patients p. 163
Vimala Suryanarayan Singh, V Vinayadev
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318518  PMID:34145126
Uremic pruritus is an uncomfortable feeling of discomfort in the skin. When it becomes severe, pruritus leads to sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, and social dysfunction, affecting the quality of life of patients. Pruritus is experienced by approximately 50%–90% of hemodialysis (HD) patients. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of baby oil therapy for uremic pruritus in HD patients and to determine the association between severity of uremic pruritus and selected demographic variables of HD patients. The research design adopted for this study was an experimental, pretest and posttest control group design. The population was HD patients in the age-group of 40–60 years. The conceptual framework of this research was based on the general system theory model. Purposive sampling technique was used and the sample size was 120 HD patients. Results showed that pruritus score was reduced up to 23.7% among experimental group HD patients with pruritus, whereas in the control group, the reduction score was only about 1.3%. It shows the effectiveness of massage with baby oil on uremic pruritus among patients undergoing HD treatment.
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Central Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Pressures during Hemodialysis p. 170
Jafar Al-Said, Corazon Suyao
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318519  PMID:34145127
Maintaining fixed dry weight and controlling cardiovascular risk factors during hemodialysis (HD) requires well-controlled blood pressure (BP) with regular measurements. Keeping the BP stable during HD is challenging in some patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Accurate measurement of BP is the key, as it helps prevent intradialytic hypotension. It is still unclear if there is a difference between using the central or peripheral BP measurements in ESRD. To study if there is a significant difference between the central and peripheral BP, we tested the central and peripheral BP in 14 ESRD patients during their HD session. We compared 326 peripheral BP readings with 326 central BP measurements. There was a significant difference noticed with a lower central systolic and pulse pressure and a higher central diastolic and mean arterial pressure as compared with the peripheral pressure readings. Since BP measurement is the major factor to determine target organ hypoperfusion during HD, measuring the central pressure measurements during HD could help mitigating the risk of inducing unnoticed target organ hypoperfusion during HD.
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SHORT REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Ultrasound Measurement and Kidney Development: a Mini-Review for Nephrologists p. 174
Issa Al Salmi, Mahmood Al Hajriy, Suad Hannawi
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318520  PMID:34145128
Ultrasound (US) is a noninvasive, simple and safe imaging investigation that can be done as many times as needed. Therefore, it is the primary imaging modality for evaluating kidneys. We carried out a literature review of information about ultrasonography for clinicians, especially nephrologists. US utilization from prenatal time till adult life with various measurements including, length, width, depth, and volume was searched during 2019. US identifies 90% of fetal kidneys by 20 weeks of gestational age. Kidney weight and volume at birth are approximately only 10% of the mature kidney. Kidney growth is most rapid during the first few weeks of life, with the kidney length increasing by as much as 15–20% in full-term neonates. There is a good correlation between relative function shown by scintigraphy and relative volume estimated from sonography. The most accurate measurement of kidney size is provided by kidney volume, which is correlated with subject’s height, weight, and total body area. Kidney length is the most easily reproduced. Kidney volume is a better approximation of size than length because of the shape of the kidney varies considerably, but it is technically more demanding and needs four measurements in two different planes. It has been shown that in normal adult kidneys, the sonography measurements of kidney length differ by values of between about 1 cm and 1.85 cm in 95% of the cases, irrespective of whether the measurements are performed by the same or by different sonographers. Measuring the renal parenchyma with US is a novel method to assess fetal kidney development and predict future renal function.
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RENAL DATA FROM THE ARAB WORLD Top

Epidemiology of End-Stage Kidney Disease on Renal Replacement Therapy: 35 Years Analysis Study Nephrologists p. 183
Ruqiya K Al-Za abi, Elizabeth P Tolmie, Ann Marie Rice, Nabil Mohsin, Ahmed Said Al-Busadi
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318521  PMID:34145129
Incidence and prevalence of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) population on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for some of the nations are well published. Oman’s publication on this aspect is limited and therefore, this study was conducted. This study analyzed the data obtained from the RRT register in Oman. The main measurements and aim are to identify the incidence and prevalence of Oman’s treated RRT population (1983–2018) with a major focus on the hemodialysis (HD) cohort. The year 1983 is the year when renal care was started in Oman. The total number of patients registered on Oman’s RRT register of the central renal dialysis center from 1983 to 2010 was 3524, distributed among the following treatment cohorts; HD, 2328 patients (66%); kidney transplant, 1,144 patients (32.5%); peritoneal dialysis, 52 patients (1.5%). However, the treated patients alive on HD by end of 2018 were 2023. The dialysis sub-population increased from 35 patients in 1983 to 2023 patients in 2018. The recorded incidence registered in 1983 was 34 patients, in 1986 was 33, in 2013 was 168, in 2015 was 230, and in 2018 was 350 RRT treated patients per million population of Oman. There is a progressive rise of the incidence and prevalence of Oman’s RRT population. This rise is similar to many nations, especially developing countries that are being faced with the rising trend of noncommunicable diseases (NCD). The health system and other stakeholders ought to take various stringent policies to ameliorate the progressive increase of NCD and hence, reduce the burden of chronic kidney disease and ESKD.
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Renal Stones and Risk Factors in Jeddah and Riyadh p. 191
Osama Y Safdar, Shahd S Alblowi, Neda A Aboulola, Deena T Alharazy
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318523  PMID:34145130
Saudi Arabia has extremely hot climate for most of the year; this is associated with the risk of developing nephrolithiasis. This retrospective research aimed to investigate the current prevalence, manifestation, mode of treatment, and risk factors of renal stones in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2018 to June 2019 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study included 1031 participants aged ≥18 years from Jeddah (n=652, 63.3%) and Riyadh (n=379, 36.8%). Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (minimum-maximum) or number (%). Comparisons between patients with and without renal stones were made using the Chi-square test and unpaired Student’s t-test as appropriate. The odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was determined for the risk factors of renal stones. The prevalence of renal stones was 16.9% among the participants. A significantly high risk for renal stones was associated with male sex (2.96; 95% CI: 2.08–4.20, P = 0.0001) and age group of 34–40 years (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.005–2.103, P = 0.047). Hypertension was more common in patients with renal stones than those without renal stones (9.5% vs.4.6%, P = 0.013). The percentage of patients who took diuretics was significantly higher among those with renal stones than among those without renal stones (11.2% vs. 3.5%, P = 0.001). Of the 169 patients with renal stones, 58.0% had a positive family history of renal stones, and 23.7% had a history of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The symptoms of renal stones were pain (86.4%), hematuria (11.2%), fever (2.4%), and others (0.6%). Of all the patients, 43.8% took medication. For most patients, the stones passed spontaneously (67.5%), while 23.7% underwent lithotripsy, and 1.5% received stents. In this study, we found a higher prevalence of renal stones two major cities in Saudi Arabia in Jeddah and Riyadh, at 16.4%. Risk factors included male sex and age group of 34–40 years. A significant number of patients with renal stones have a family history of renal stones and a history of UTI. Loin pain and hematuria were the two major clinical presenting symptoms for renal stones. In the majority of patients, the renal stones passed spontaneously without the need for lithotripsy or surgery.
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RENAL DATA FROM ASIA–AFRICA Top

Role of Renal Dysfunction as a Prognostic Factor in Acute Stroke Patients at a Tertiary Hospital in Northeastern Nigeria p. 199
Mohammad Maina Sulaiman, Musa Mamman Watila, Jummai Shettima, Ibrahim Ummate, Yakubu Wilberforce Nyandaiti
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318524  PMID:34145131
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and stroke share many common risk factors, and the presence of CKD confers added risk factors for stroke. With increasing interest and understanding of the close relationship between the kidney and the brain, this study aims to assess the prevalence and impact of renal dysfunction on outcomes acute stroke patients. This is a prospective hospital-based study carried out in the neurology unit of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, northeastern Nigeria. The study population consisted of adult patients (>18 years) admitted in the medical wards with a diagnosis of acute stroke. Sociodemographic variables and biochemical parameters were obtained from each patient. Patients’ functional status assessment by modified Rankin scale, Barthel index, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score were obtained at admission and discharge. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the modification of diet in renal disease equation. Patients who have estimated GFR (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were considered to have CKD. Patients were grouped into A: with GFR <60 mL/min and B: GFR >60 mL/min. Out of a total of 501 patients admitted during the study period, 448 patients had complete data and were recruited, out of which 275 (61.4%) were male and 173 (38.6%) were female. Their ages ranged from 38 to 89 years, with a mean age ± standard deviation of 53.85 ± 18.13 years. The mean eGFR of the study population was 66.55 ± 30.49 mL/min. Two hundred and twenty-five (50.2%) had renal dysfunction with GFR <60 mL/min. The mean GFR of patients with renal dysfunction was 32.84 ± 27.59 mL/min, and patients without renal dysfunction had a mean GFR of 73.68 ± 35.61 mL/min. Patients with renal dysfunction on admission had Barthel stroke score of 20.74 ± 18.74 as compared to patients without renal dysfunction (25.49 ± 20.34), P = 0.017. At discharge, the Barthel scores for the two groups were 53.87 ± 30.17 and 41.71 ± 30.29 (P = 0.000), respectively. Patients with renal dysfunction had longer hospital stay with a mean duration on admission of 45.66 ± 39.90 days and severe residual disability at discharge. Acute stroke patients who have associated renal dysfunction have severe disability on admission and discharge. Renal dysfunction is common among acute stroke patients.
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Clinical and Histopathological Profile of Adolescent onset Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome in North Indian Children p. 204
Kanika Kapoor, Abhijeet Saha, Nand Kishore Dubey, Vinita Vijay Batra, Ashish Dutt Upadhyay
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318525  PMID:34145132
Adolescent onset idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is marked by increased incidence atypical features and non-minimal change disease in histopathology. The objective of the study was to analyze the clinical features and histopathological spectrum of adolescent-onset INS. It was conducted in a Pediatric nephrology clinic of a tertiary care hospital in North India. We retrospectively evaluated clinical features, biochemical investigations and histopathology of 33 adolescents with idiopathic NS registered in pediatric nephrology clinic. Twenty-three (70.0%) adolescents had steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome. Hematuria was present in 39%, hypertension 36% and acute kidney injury (AKI) in 27%. Three-fourth of adolescents who underwent biopsy had non-minimal change disease in histopathology. Adolescent onset INS have increased incidence of AKI, hypertension, and non-minimal change disease.
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Microbiological Spectrum and Outcomes of Acute Pyelonephritis in North Indian Population p. 209
Aniket Niwrutti Hase, Shyam Bihari Bansal, Ashwini Balasheb Gadde, Ashish Nandwani
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318526  PMID:34145133
A wide range of causative organisms can cause acute pyelonephritis (APN). However, in recent times, these pathogens have increasingly become resistant to most of the antibiotics making treatment difficult. This was a prospective observational single-center study with a aim to study the microbiological spectrum, resistance patterns, and clinical outcome of patients with APN conducted in a private tertiary care hospital in India. All adult patients hospitalized in the department of nephrology at our institute with a diagnosis of APN from February 2016 to May 2017 were included. Patients <18 years of age, kidney-transplant recipients, and pregnant patients were excluded. Demographic details, clinical symptoms, signs, and radiological and laboratory data including urine and blood cultures of all patients were recorded. The details of treatment received and outcomes in hospital and after discharge were noted. Patients were followed up three months post discharge. Decision of antibiotic and duration of antibiotics was documented by treating nephrologists. Quantitative data were presented in terms of means and standard deviation. Student’s “t” test was used for comparison of quantitative outcome parameters. P <0.05 is considered statistically significant. SPSS software version 23.0 was used for statistical analysis. A total of 89 patients with a mean age of 50.33 ± 13.9 years, of which 61.8% were males and were studied; 82/89 had complicated pyelonephritis. The most common risk factor for APN was diabetes mellitus in 64 (72%). Most common symptom was fever in 80 (90%). A triad of fever, flank pain, and dysuria was present only in 27 (30.33%). Overall, 15 patients (16.8%) had severe pyelonephritis requiring intensive care unit admission. The most common organism isolated was Escherichia coli in 26/49 (53%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae in 12 (24.40%). Twenty-two (58%) isolates were extended-spectrum beta lactamase producers. Six (12.20%) were resistant to carbapenems and two (4%) were pan-resistant. All 89 were treated with intravenous antibiotics. Older patients, those with diabetes, with poor glycemic control, and with emphysematous pyelonephritis and patients in whom ESBL organisms were grown had poor outcome. Piperacillin tazobactam, aminopenicillins, cefoperazone sulbactam, and carbapenems (in severe pyelonephritis) can be considered as the empirical antibiotic of choice.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Coronavirus Disease-2019 in Children with Primary Kidney Disease: A Case series p. 218
Ashwin Meshram, Kinnari B Vala, Anshuman Saha, Himanshu V Patel, Vivek Kute, Dinesh Gera
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318527  PMID:34145134
Underlying comorbid illness is a known risk factor for severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Clinical course of COVID-19 in children with primary kidney disease is not well understood. We present the clinical profile and management of COVID-19 in three children at a COVID hospital in India. These children had nephrotic syndrome, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and chronic kidney disease, respectively. The first two were immunosuppressed, mandating to stop their immunosuppressive medications temporarily. Both had mild course of illness. Third child presented with respiratory distress requiring oxygen support, falling into moderate disease. Renal functions were normal in all of them. They all responded well to oral azithromycin and supportive management. None of them received chloroquine, corticosteroids, or monoclonal antibodies. All three recovered without complications.
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A Rare Cause of Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults – Collagenofibrotic Glomerulopathy p. 223
Pradeep Shenoy, Joshi Divya
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318528  PMID:34145135
Adult-onset nephrotic syndrome (NS) is commonly caused by minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, andmembranous nephropathy. Rare causes of NS include amyloidosis, immunoglobulin deposition disease, fibronectin glomerulopathy, and Collagenofibrotic glomerulopathy (CG). CG is caused by deposition of Type 3 collagen in the mesangium and subendothelial area. It usually presents as asymptomatic proteinuria, NS, hypertension, and renal failure. Histologically, it can present as Congo red-negative nodular glomerulosclerosis and requires electron microscopy for confirmation of diagnosis. Electron microscopy shows characteristic fibers which are curved, frayed and have a transverse band with periodicity of 43–65 nm. There is no specific treatment, and it can recur after kidney transplantation.
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Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane Disease with Atypical Associations p. 227
Prashant Bharat Malviya, Somashekhar Modigonda, Sanjay Maitra, Swarnalata Gowrishankar
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318529  PMID:34145136
Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by circulating immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to carboxy-terminal, noncollagenous 1 domain of type IV collagen of GBM. Patients typically present with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage. Anti-GBM disease has been reported to coexist with pauci-immune antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-positive glomerulonephritis and membranous glomerulopathy. The presentation of anti-GBM disease with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and IgA nephropathy has been rarely described. We herein report two cases of anti-GBM antibody disease, both with crescentic glomerulonephritis and peripheral linear deposits of IgG, one case with clinical and histological findings of associated TMA and other with findings of extensive mesangial IgA deposits. Both the patients were treated with corticosteroid, intravenous cyclophosphamide, and plasma exchange but had poor renal recovery. Association of anti-GBM disease with TMA or IgA nephropathy could open up new pathogenetic mechanism and may help us to prognosticate anti-GBM disease.
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Inadvertent Placement of Tunneled Hemodialysis Catheter in Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava p. 232
Sameer V Vyahalkar, Swati A Pawar
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318530  PMID:34145137
Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is the most common congenital intrathoracic venous anomaly with significant clinical relevance. In the vast majority of cases, it is asymptomatic and diagnosed after noticing an abnormal course of central venous access device on a routine post-procedure roentgenogram. It may also be accidentally discovered after facing difficulty in accessing the right side of the heart from a left internal jugular vein or left subclavian vein approach, a common site of access while placing cardiac pacemaker and Swan-Ganz catheter, or after a complication associated with hemodialysis (HD) catheter insertion. HD through a catheter in PLSVC has its own set of pitfalls and should be reserved for short-term dialysis at the best. In this case report, we present a scenario where PLSVC was discovered after the placement of a tunneled HD catheter.
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Covered Stents for Cephalic Arch Stenosis p. 236
Mukesh Sharma, Tushar J Vachharajani
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318531  PMID:34145138
A functional arteriovenous access is required to provide hemodialysis, which remains the most commonly used one for renal replacement therapy worldwide. In the upper arm, a brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula is created by surgically joining the cephalic vein and brachial artery at the elbow. The outflow segment of the cephalic vein near the shoulder is called the cephalic arch. Due to its anatomical location, the cephalic arch segment is prone to developing stenosis resulting in access dysfunction and thrombosis. The management strategy to treat cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) remains a clinical challenge. We report a case of severe CAS treated successfully with endovascular therapy.
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Splenic Infarcts and Pulmonary Renal Syndrome in a Young Patient with Double-Positive Anti-GBM and ANCA-Associated Vasculitis p. 240
Fares T Rajah, Ali A Alhabobi, Noura M Aloudah, Ayumun I Osman, Elwaleed A Elhassan
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318532  PMID:34145139
Double-positive disease, defined by double-seropositivity for serum anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) is a rare cause of pulmonary-renal syndrome. Here, we present an exceptional course of a 20-year-old male with seropositivity for anti-myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and anti-GBM antibody, who presented first with renal impairment due to focal necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis. After receiving treatment, he presented two years later with a relapse manifesting with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and multiple splenic infarcts. We discuss the clinical presentation patterns and treatment strategies of this entity.
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Candida tropicalis in Peritoneal Dialysis-related Peritonitis Diagnosed by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/ionization Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry p. 245
María Guadalupe Ramirez Ramirez, Héctor Raúl Ibarra Sifuentes, Sergio Raúl Alvizures Solares, Giovanna Yazmin Arteaga Muller, Jesús Cruz Valdez
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318533  PMID:34145140
Fungal peritonitis (FP) is a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Candida tropicalis infections are rarely reported in literature. The authors present the first case of FP with peritoneal abscess due to C. tropicalis in a 22-year-old woman admitted to our hospital with septic shock. Abdominal tomography demonstrated an abscess in peritoneal space and intraluminal bubble appearance in femoral venous and arterial circulation. PD fluid specimens and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis revealed fungus growth of C. tropicalis. Fluconazole therapy was administered accompanied by catheter removal and mechanical ventilation with vasopressor support. The patient recovered after 23 days of hospitalization and was discharged. FP represents high mobility and mortality unless infection source control and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are implemented accompanied by PD catheter removal. The use of MALDI-TOF MS for PD-related peritonitis pathogen identification can promote early identification and appropriate antibiotic therapy, especially in C. tropicalis infection.
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Isolated Renal Involvement by IG4-Related Disorder Mimicking Multiple Myeloma, a Diagnosis Not to Miss p. 249
Muhammad Abdul Mabood Khalil, Ahmed Suleman Rajput, Ruzita Ghani, SM Rahmat Ullah, May Kyaw Thet, Rajendra Govindrao Daiwajna, Pemasiri Upali Telisinghe, Vui Heng Chong, Jackson Tan
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318534  PMID:34145141
IG4-related disorder (IgG4-RD) with isolated kidney involvement is rare. IG4-RD is a fibroinflammatory disorder leading to polyclonal activation of plasma cell and can affect kidney, orbital tissues, salivary glands, pancreas, bile duct, lymph nodes, and can cause inflammatory mass in any organ. Isolated kidney involvement is rare in this order. We share a case of isolated kidney involvement by this order presenting as enlarged kidneys with renal impairment. Kidney biopsy showed CD138 plasma cell interstitial nephritis. The biopsy also showed kappa light chain along IgG on immunofluorescence and was reported as light chain deposition disease initially. In view of hyperproteinemia and initial renal biopsy finding, workup was done for myeloma. Bone marrow biopsy showed around 20% of plasma cell infiltration. Skeletal survey did not show any lytic lesions and immunofixation did not reveal any paraprotein. Flowcytometry of the bone marrow showed nonclonal plasma cell. In view of negative workup for myeloma and nonclonal cells, re-evaluation of the kidney biopsy was done. Biopsy was reanalyzed for both IgG and IgG4. It showed 30 IgG4 cells per high-power field with a ratio of IgG4 / IgG of 40%. The staining for IgM, IgA C3, and C1q was negative. The patient was labeled as having plasma cell interstitial nephritis due toIgG4-RD. The patient responded well to oral prednisolone. It is important not to miss this potentially treatable and reversible condition by staining the biopsy sample for both IgG and IgG4 in clinically suspected cases.
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Partial Splenic Embolization for Hypersplenism Associated with Steatohepatitis in a Hemodialysis Patient p. 255
Kamel El-Reshaid, Fahad Alabdulghani, Shaikha Al-Bader
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318535  PMID:34145142
Hypersplenism (HS) is a disorder characterized by a triad of splenomegaly, peripheral cytopenia due to premature destruction of blood cells and normocellular bone marrow. Its etiology is diverse and includes (a) primary autoimmune cytopenias, (b) secondary to congestion due to portal hypertension in cirrhosis and, other causes such asperiportal fibrosis, infections, autoimmune diseases, lymphoproliferative disorders, infiltrative diseases and hemolytic anemias. The latter diseases are common in patients with end-stage kidney disease. In severe cases, co-existence of multiple co-morbid conditions, coagulopathy of uremia and dialysis-anticoagulation, and their immunosuppressive state render surgical splenectomy at highrisk. Mid-segment partial splenic infarction and with an aim at 50%–70% splenic volume loss was shown to be a less invasive therapy for HS. In our case report, we describe its first successful trial in a hemodialysis patient with severe HS due to cirrhosis.
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Coronavirus Disease-19 and Re-infection: Unknown of the Unknown p. 261
Narender Goel, Deepika Jain, Danny B Haddad
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318536  PMID:34145143
Coronavirus disease has caused seven million infections worldwide, of which, 3.1 million individuals have recovered. Though, most individuals develop antibodies, whether these antibodies result in clinical improvement/immunity from future infection is not known. It is also not known about durability of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). No human re-infection with SARS-CoV-2 has been confirmed to date, although a few case reports have mentioned patients who have tested positive again after recovery from the initial illness. Whether these cases represent a state of carrier or re-infection or reactivation, is not known. Nevertheless, the possibility of re-infection remains a matter of concern and yet another question about SARS-CoV-2 which is still unanswered.
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LETTER TO THE EDITORS Top

The Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Takayasu's Arteritis p. 265
Gioacchino Li Cavoli, Luisa Bono, Francesca Finazzo, Mario Giuseppe Vallone, Calogera Tortorici, Vitalba Azzolina, Riccardo Dell’ Utri, Tancredi Vincenzo Li Cavoli, Rosalia Mongiovì, Antonio Amato, Franca Servillo, Carlo Giammarresi, Camillo Carollo, Carmela Zagarrigo, Barbara Oliva, Onofrio Schillaci, Angelo Tralongo
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318537  PMID:34145144
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Altruistic Attitudes among the Relatives of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cross-sectional Study p. 268
Benil Hafeeq, NA Uvais, Feroz Aziz
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318538  PMID:34145145
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Biopsy or Computerized Tomography Scan to Diagnose Postpartum Acute Cortical Necrosis: Time to Rethink p. 271
Abhilash Chandra, Namrata Rao, Tushant Kumar
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318539  PMID:34145146
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The Left Atrial Volume Index as an Indicator of Left Atrial Remodeling in Chronic Kidney Disease p. 273
Tatiana Rudenko, Elena Kamyshova, Irina Bobkova
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318540  PMID:34145147
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Author’s Reply p. 274
Abeera Mansur, Shahbaz Sarwar
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318541  PMID:34145148
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Management of Redundant Dialysis Access-Arteriovenous Fistula in Post Renal Transplant Care p. 276
Sivaparvathi Karanam, Mahesh Chintakayala, RD Nagaraj, Sunnesh Anapalli, Sivakumar Vishnubotla
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318542  PMID:34145149
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Pulmonary Artery Hypertension in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis p. 280
E Annaiah, Sivaparvathi Karanam, N Sharvani, Sharan B Singh, V Vanajakshamma, M Hemalatha, C Latha, V Sivakumar
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318543  PMID:34145150
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Coronavirus Disease-2019 in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome p. 284
Laila S Al Yazidi, Dana A Al Nabhani
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318544  PMID:34145151
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Recurrent Emphysematous Pyelonephritis: Report of a Patient with Three episodes p. 286
Marramreddy Sravani, Attili Subha, Maria Bethasaida Manuel, Bommu Alekhya, Rapur Ram, Vishnubotla Siva Kumar
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.318545  PMID:34145152
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