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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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Protein-to-creatinine ratio: A valid estimate and alternative to 24 hour proteinuria
Ayman Karkar, Mohammed Abdelrahman
September-October 2010, 21(5):949-950
  183,574 1,683 -
Intravenous Iron Saccharate Complex: Guidelines for its use in the Management of Anemia of Renal Disease
Monica Zolezzi
April-June 2003, 14(2):129-133
  59,248 1,333 -
Infection control in hemodialysis units: A quick access to essential elements
Ayman Karkar, Betty Mandin Bouhaha, Mienalyn Lim Dammang
May-June 2014, 25(3):496-519
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.132150  PMID:24821145
Infection is the most common cause of hospitalization and the second most common cause of mortality among hemodialysis (HD) patients, after cardiovascular disease. HD patients as well as the dialysis staff are vulnerable to contracting health-care-associated infections (HAIs) due to frequent and prolonged exposure to many possible contaminants in the dialysis environment. The extracorporeal nature of the therapy, the associated common environmental conditions and the immune compromised status of HD patients are major predisposing factors. The evident increased potential for transmission of infections in the HD settings led to the creation and implementation of specific and stricter infection prevention and control measures in addition to the usual standard precautions. Different international organizations have generated guidelines and recommendations on infection prevention and control for implementation in the HD settings. These include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Association of Professionals in Infection Control (APIC), the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI), the European Best Practice Guidelines/European Renal Best Practice (EBPG/ERBP) and the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). However, these guidelines are extensive and sometimes vary among different guideline-producing bodies. Our aim in this review is to facilitate the access, increase the awareness and encourage implementation among dialysis providers by reviewing, extracting and comparing the essential elements of guidelines and recommendations on infection prevention and control in HD units.
  55,137 4,871 9
Moral and Ethical Issues in Liver and Kidney Transplantation
Lama Saadi Taher
July-September 2005, 16(3):375-382
  49,221 1,677 -
Panel Reactive Antibody test (PRA) in renal transplantation
Ali H Hajeer
January-March 2006, 17(1):1-4
  41,560 2,516 -
Evaluation of a Transplanted Kidney by Doppler Ultrasound
Samih Al-Khulaifat
September-October 2008, 19(5):730-736
  39,710 3,988 -
The impact of thyroid dysfunction on renal function tests
Abdelmula M Abdella, Botoual Seroj Ekoon, Gad Allah Modawe
January-February 2013, 24(1):132-134
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.106310  PMID:23354210
  41,264 1,166 2
Which is the Best Way of Performing a Micturating Cystourethrogram in Children?
Ola Ali Al-Imam, Nareeman Moh’d Al-Nsour, Samih Al-Khulaifat
January-February 2008, 19(1):20-25
The Micturating Cystourethrogram (MCU) is a tough and stressful examination for patients and their parents as well as the radiologists and pediatric radiology nurses. Even though, it is one of the most commonly used fluoroscopic procedures in pediatric radiology practice, there is no definite agreement as to the best way to perform it, considering that this examination results in the children receiving a high dose of radiation to the gonadal region. This review was undertaken to determine the best way to perform the MCU in modern pediatric radiology practice.
  39,833 1,743 1
Nephrogenic ascites - Still an intractable problem?
Shobhana Nayak-Rao
July-August 2015, 26(4):773-777
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.160214  PMID:26178555
Nephrogenic ascites or ascites associated with renal failure is seen in end-stage renal disease in-patients on hemodialysis but has been described occasionally in earlier stages of renal failure. The cause can be multifactorial and a combination of inadequate dialysis and ultrafiltration, poor nutrition and increased peritoneal membrane permeability in uremia. Generally, the onset of nephrogenic ascites is insidious and portends a grim long-term prognosis. We describe herein three patients who presented with refractory ascites of nephrogenic origin and review this entity.
  39,452 1,836 3
Contrast-induced nephropathy: Pathophysiology, risk factors, and prevention
Mohammad A Hossain, Eric Costanzo, James Cosentino, Chirag Patel, Huzaif Qaisar, Vikas Singh, Taimoor Khan, Jennifer S Cheng, Arif Asif, Tushar J Vachharajani
January-February 2018, 29(1):1-9
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.225199  PMID:29456202
Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a common iatrogenic complication associated with increased health resource utilization and adverse outcomes, including short- and long-term mortality and accelerated progression of preexisting renal insufficiency. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has been reported to range from 0% to 24%. This wide range reported by the studies is due to differences in definition, background risk factors, type and dose of contrast medium used, and the frequency of other coexisting potential causes of acute renal failure. CIN is usually transient, with serum creatinine levels peaking at 2–3 days after administration of contrast medium and returning to baseline within 7–10 days after administration. Multiple studies have been conducted using variety of therapeutic interventions in an attempt to prevent CIN. Of these, careful selection of patients, using newer radiocontrast agents, maintenance of hydration status, and avoiding nephrotoxic agents pre- and post-procedure are the most effective interventions to protect against CIN. This review focuses on the basic concepts of CIN and summarizes our recent understanding of its pathophysiology. In addition, this article provides practical recommendations with respect to CIN prevention and management.
  32,486 4,697 51
Vaccine-associated kidney diseases: A narrative review of the literature
Chinmay Patel, Hitesh H Shah
September-October 2019, 30(5):1002-1009
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.270254  PMID:31696837
Immunization is one of the greatest public health achievements of the 20th century. Vaccines have enabled the eradication of deadly diseases and decreased the morbidity and mortality associated with various infections. Most vaccines are safe to administer and cause only minor side effects. Although very rare, various glomerular diseases and acute kidney injury have been reported following immunization with certain vaccines including influenza, pneumococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. This review summarizes these rare renal complications that have been published in the literature. Physicians and other health-care providers administrating vaccines should be aware of these very rare but possible renal side effects.
  34,645 1,167 22
Candiduria: A Review of Clinical Significance and Management
Zakeya Abdulbaqi Bukhary
May-June 2008, 19(3):350-360
Candiduria is a common nosocomial infection afflicting the urinary tract. This review is aimed at providing an updated summary of the problem in hospitalized adult patients. A review of English Medline literature published between Jan 1970 until June 2007 was performed. Reviews, clinical trials and case-controlled studies in adult patients were included. Risk factors for candiduria included urinary indwelling catheters, use of antibiotics, elderly age, underlying genitourinary tract abnormality, previous surgery and presence of diabetes mellitus. Presence of candiduria may represent only colonization and there are no consistent diagnostic criteria to define significant infection. Candiduria may not be associated with candidemia and most cases are asymptomatic. Asymptomatic candiduria is usually benign, and does not require local or systemic antifungal therapy. Physicians need to confirm the infection by a second sterile urine sample, adopt non-pharmacologic interventions and modify risk factors. Mortality rate can be high particularly in debilitated patients and awareness to validate candiduria is necessary to stratify treatment according to patient status. Appropriate use of anti fungal drugs, when indicated, should not replace correction of the underlying risk factors. Treatment of symptomatic candiduria is less controversial and easier.
  31,160 4,349 14
Mycophenolate Sodium versus Mycophenolate Mofetil: A Review of Their Comparative Features
Monica Zolezzi
April-June 2005, 16(2):140-145
  33,613 1,685 -
Lung Disease in Relation to Kidney Diseases
Imad Salah Ahmed Hassan, Mohammed Beshir Ghalib
July-September 2005, 16(3):282-287
  31,750 1,543 -
Penile gangrene: A devastating and lethal entity
Vishwajeet Singh, Rahul Janak Sinha, SN Sankhwar
March-April 2011, 22(2):359-361
  32,387 855 2
Infectious Complications in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Review of the Literature
Jad A Khoury, Daniel C Brennan
October-December 2005, 16(4):453-497
Since the initial successful kidney transplantation in humans, the field of renal transplantation has made significant progress. Patient survival and graft survival have improved tremendously. Our armamentarium of immunosuppressive drugs and antimicrobial agents has expanded, as our understanding of their effects and proper utilization. Enhanced surgical techniques also improved the overall survival of kidney recipients. However, infectious complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. In this article, we provide an overview of infections in kidney transplant recipients, a detailed illustration of specific infectious agents with a focus on cytomegalovirus, and finally we lay some general principles for limiting the burden of infectious complications in kidney transplants through proper infection control measures.
  29,579 2,723 -
Continuous renal replacement therapy: Principles, modalities, and prescription
Ayman Karkar
November-December 2019, 30(6):1201-1209
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.275463  PMID:31929266
The mortality rate of critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) remains high. The associated sepsis and septic shock, as well as the presence of multiorgan failure, further increase the risk of death. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) represents the cornerstone of the management of severe AKI. Continuous RRT (CRRT) has been considered the predominant form of dialysis in the intensive care unit due to its accurate volume control, steady acid-base, and electrolyte correction and achievement of hemodynamic stability. This narrative review covers an introduction to CRRT, its physiologic principles, modalities, requirements, indications, and different elements of adequate prescription.
  28,221 3,983 4
Acute Kidney Injury due to Rhabdomyolysis
Rafael Siqueira Athayde Lima, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Alexandre Braga Liborio, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
September-October 2008, 19(5):721-729
Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical and biochemical syndrome that occurs when skeletal muscle cells disrupt and release creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and myoglobin into the interstitial space and plasma. The main causes of rhabdomyolysis include direct muscular injury, strenuous exercise, drugs, toxins, infections, hyperthermia, seizures, meta­bolic and/or electrolyte abnormalities, and endocrinopathies. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 33-50% of patients with rhabdomyolysis. The main pathophysiological mechanisms of renal injury are renal vasoconstriction, intraluminal cast formation, and direct myoglobin toxicity. Rhabdo­myolysis can be asymptomatic, present with mild symptoms such as elevation of muscular en­zymes, or manifest as a severe syndrome with AKI and high mortality. Serum CK five times higher than the normal value usually confirms rhabdomyolysis. Early diagnosis and saline volume expansion may reduce the risk of AKI. Further studies are necessary to establish the importance of bicarbonate and mannitol in the prevention of AKI due to rhabdomyolysis.
  26,686 4,726 8
Snake Bites and Acute Renal Failure
HS Kohli, V Sakhuja
April-June 2003, 14(2):165-176
  28,755 2,595 -
Invasive Saccharomyces cerevisiae infection: A friend turning foe?
Unnikrishnan Pillai, Joe Devasahayam, Aparna Narayana Kurup, Alexandre Lacasse
November-December 2014, 25(6):1266-1269
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.144265  PMID:25394448
We report a very rare case of acute pyelonephritis in a 51-year-old female with a history of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes caused by a normally benign and a well-known human commensal organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is very often prescribed as a probiotic in modern medical practice. The causal role of S. cerevisiae was confirmed by its isolation in blood, urine, stool as well as vaginal swabs thus proving its virulent nature in suitable situations.
  30,309 1,030 6
Organ transplantation: A Sunni Islamic perspective
Mohammed Albar
July-August 2012, 23(4):817-822
This paper reviews the standpoints of Muslim jurists within the Sunni tradition on organ transplantation. Muslim jurists allowed different forms of bone grafts (autograft, allograft and xenograft) for widely broken bones. Ibn Sina in 1037 discussed this subject in Al-Kanoon 1000 years ago. In 1959, the Muftis of Egypt and Tunisia allowed, under specific conditions, corneal transplants from dead persons. Thereafter, many fatwas (jurisprudence) on organ trans­plantation have been issued from different parts of the Muslim world. In Amman, Jordan, the International Islamic Jurist Council recognized brain-death as a recognized sign of death in Islam in October 1986. This paved the way for organ transplantation from brain-dead persons, which started immediately in Saudi Arabia. In 1990 and 2003, the International Islamic Fiqh Academy (IIFA) and the Islamic Fiqh Academy (IFA) issued important fatwas on organ transplantation. By the end of 2008, more than 3600 organs were transplanted from brain-dead persons in Saudi Arabia.
  29,057 1,886 25
Diagnosis and Management of Crescentic Glomerulonephritis: State of the Art
Hans-Joachim Anders
July-September 2000, 11(3):353-361
  29,399 1,453 -
Severe acute renal failure in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis
Jamila Al-Matrafi, Jennifer Vethamuthu, Janusz Feber
September-October 2009, 20(5):831-834
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Early recognition and aggressive treatment of ARF during DKA may im­prove the prognosis of these patients. We present a case report of a 12 year old female admitted to the hospital with severe DKA as the 1s t manifestation of her diabetes mellitus. She presented with severe metabolic acidosis, hypophosphatemia, and oliguric ARF. In addition, rhabdomyolysis was noted during the course of DKA which probably contributed to the ARF. Management of DKA and renal replacement therapy resulted in quick recovery of renal function. We suggest that early initiation of renal replacement therapy for patients with DKA developing ARF may improve the potentially poor outcome of patients with ARF associated with DKA.
  25,870 2,619 4
Management of Hypotension in Dialysis Patients: Role of Dialysate Temperature Control
Frank M van der Sande, Jeroen P Kooman, Willi H.M van Kuijk, Karel M.L Leunissen
July-September 2001, 12(3):382-386
  27,247 1,207 -
The Place of Ultrasound in Renal Medicine
Alaleh Gheissari
October-December 2006, 17(4):540-548
Today, ultrasound is one of the most commonly used diagnostic tools, the reasons being that it is non-invasive, reliable, widely available, and affordable. In this paper, we review the place of ultrasound in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with kidney diseases. We briefly discuss a wide range of kidney diseases for which ultrasound imaging is still performed as one of the initial steps of diagnosis. To achieve this, five following categories are addressed: congenital anomalies of the kidney; renal cystic diseases; renal infections; kidney stones; and kidney tumors. The sonographic findings of these diseases are discussed.
  25,473 1,423 4
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