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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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   2014| January-February  | Volume 25 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 7, 2014

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The effect of treatment with N-acetylcysteine on the serum levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in patients on hemodialysis
Fereshteh Saddadi, Sudabeh Alatab, Farahnaz Pasha, Mohammad Reza Ganji, Tayebeh Soleimanian
January-February 2014, 25(1):66-72
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124489  PMID:24434384
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at an increased risk of cardiovas­cular disease due to many factors including inflammation and oxidative stress. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiol-containing anti-oxidant with anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to assess the effect of three months treatment with oral NAC on the plasma levels of inflammatory mediators like interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Twenty-four patients (nine males and 15 females) on maintenance HD were recruited in the study. Their mean age was 55.3 years. All the patients received oral NAC (600 mg twice a day) for a period of three months. The serum levels of biomedical parameters and IL-6 and hs-CRP were measured at baseline and three months after initiation of treatment. A significant decrease in serum levels of hs-CRP (22.4 vs. 5.2), IL-6 (8.1 vs. 3.6), parathyroid hormone (iPTH) (257.2 vs. 158.8), ferritin (632.0 vs. 515.1) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (54.2 vs. 38.3) was observed following NAC treatment. Female subjects presented with a significantly higher change in serum levels of hs-CRP compared with males (23 vs. 5.4). In three subjects who were less than 40 years old, the hs-CRP and IL-6 levels showed an increase following NAC treatment. Our study found that short-term oral NAC treatment might result in the reduction of IL-6 and hs-CRP in patients who are on regular HD. This suggests that patients with ESRD may benefit from the anti-inflammatory effects of NAC.
  11 6,953 1,087
Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: Evaluation of diagnostic framework
Tukur Ado Jido
January-February 2014, 25(1):85-90
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124496  PMID:24434387
This study was performed with the objective to examine the diagnostic framework for urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy and physician response to the clinical diagnosis and to correlate responses to the results of urine culture and sensitivity. Over a 6-month period, 81 consecutive patients attending the labor ward admission of a district general hospital with the diagnosis of UTI during pregnancy were analyzed. Relevant information on symptom complex, result of dipstick urinalysis and culture and sensitivity were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Of the 78 patients analyzed, 79% had increased urinary frequency, 73.1% had suprapubic pains and 53.1% had dysuria. All the patients had urinalysis with dipsticks, 41 (52.6%) were positive for nitrites and 64 (82.1%) were positive for leukocyte esterase. All 78 patients had urine culture and sensitivity, 21 (26.8%) of who were positive, and coliforms were the most commonly isolated pathogens. The sensitivity for nitrite was 80.9%, specificity 57.9% and positive predictive value 41.4%. The corresponding figures for leukocyte esterase were sensi­tivity 100%, specificity 24.6% and positive predictive value 32.8%. Sixty-six (84.6%) patients had treatment started on the basis of the clinical diagnosis, mostly with co-amoxyclavullinic acid or amoxicillin alone. A high resistance rate to these empirically chosen antibiotics was seen in the sensitivity pattern of isolated pathogens. Current clinical diagnostic algorithms for the diagnosis of UTI when applied in the context of pregnancy have low specificity and positive predictive values; yet, empirical antibiotics are frequently employed on this basis. These are often not in keeping with the sensitivity pattern of isolated organisms. There is need for a continuing research for more specific bedside tests.
  8 13,193 1,884
Inguinal herniation of the bladder and ureter: An unusual cause of obstructive uropathy in a transplant kidney
Sameer Vyas, Neha Chabra, Shrawan Kumar Singh, Niranjan Khandelwal
January-February 2014, 25(1):153-155
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124549  PMID:24434401
  7 2,165 326
Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria
Zubairu Iliyasu, Isa S Abubakar, Umar M Lawan, Mustapha Abubakar, Bappa Adamu
January-February 2014, 25(1):196-205
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124577  PMID:24434412
Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF) requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6%) reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05). Most respondents, 303 (79.1%), were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88), marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1), religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10) and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35) were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%), children (21.3%), spouses (14.6%) and other relatives (13.4%). Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%), moral obligation (21.4%) and compassion (11.9%), among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation.
  7 5,924 690
End-stage renal disease in Tabuk Area, Saudi Arabia: An epidemiological study
Osama El Minshawy, Tawfik Ghabrah, Eman El Bassuoni
January-February 2014, 25(1):192-195
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124574  PMID:24434411
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, etiology and risk fac­tors of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the region of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. We studied 460 renal replacement therapy patients through a review of medical records and patient interviews and obtained patient demographics, family history, risk factors for ESRD, environmental exposure to toxins, work conditions, social history and causes of death. The estimated prevalence of treated ESRD was 460 per million populations (PMP); 350 (76%) were treated by hemodialysis, 30 (7%) by peritoneal dialysis and 80 (17%) by kidney transplantation. The mean age was 48 ± 17 years, body mass index was 25 ± 2 kg/m 2 and the male vs. female ratio was 64% vs. 36%. Most patients (55%) were living in rural areas. Etiology of the ESRD was unknown in 33%, hypertension in 24%, chronic glomerulonephritis in 8%, obstructive uropathy in 3.5%, analgesic nephropathy in 5%, Bilhaziasis in 0.5%, chronic pyelonephritis in 2% and diabetic nephropathy in 18%. Other causes such as gouty nephropathy, collagen diseases, toxemia of pregnancy and lupus nephritis constituted 6% of the cases. We conclude that the epidemiology of the treated ESRD in Tabuk area is similar to that in Egypt, but very different from that in the United States.
  7 4,296 711
The seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 among kidney transplant recipients: A single-center study
Zakieh Rostamzadeh Khameneh, Nariman Sepehrvand, Vahid Sohrabi, Nazafarin Ghasemzadeh
January-February 2014, 25(1):16-21
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124465  PMID:24434377
Parvovirus B19 is a DNA virus that is responsible for causing several diseases in humans. Parvovirus B19-induced persistent anemia is one of its manifestations that is relatively common in transplant recipients. This study was aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 among kidney transplant recipients. Ninety-one transplant recipients were selected randomly and were investigated for several variables including age, gender, educational status, history of hemodialysis (HD), history of blood transfusion and immunosuppressive therapy. Two milliliters of blood samples were collected via venipuncture and evaluated for anti-Parvovirus B19 IgG antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All recipients were anemic, with 72.5% of them suffering from severe anemia (Hb ≤ 11 in men and ≤ 10 in women). Sixty-three patients (69.2%) were seropositive for Parvovirus B19. There was no significant difference in age, sex, educational status, history of blood transfusion, history of HD and immunosuppressive therapy between seropositive and seronegative groups. The seroprevalence of Parvovirus B19 was relatively high in kidney transplant recipients in Urmia, Iran. Our study failed to find a correlation between the severity of anemia and the seropositivity of Parvovirus B19.
  6 3,916 606
Mean bone mineral density and frequency of occurrence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients on hemodialysis: A single-center study
Mohammad I Khan, Ghulam M Syed, Asia I Khan, Irshad A Sirwal, Sheikh K Anwar, Abdul R Al-Oufi, Khalid A Balbaid
January-February 2014, 25(1):38-43
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124477  PMID:24434380
Chronic renal disease changes both quality and quantity of bone through multi-factorial influences on bone metabolism, leading to osteopenia, osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture. The objectives of our present cross-sectional study were to determine the mean bone mineral density (BMD) and frequency of occurrence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in Saudi patients on hemodialysis (HD) for longer than 1 year. Forty-two male and 78 female patients with age between 20 and 50 years were enrolled in this study. The BMD of the lumbar vertebral spine (LV) and the neck of femur (FN) were measured in all patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 software and the level of significance was considered as P <0.05. The mean BMD in the LV (L2-L4) was 1.155 ± 0.026 g/cm 2 in male and 1.050 ± 0.025 g/cm 2 in female patients (P = 0.016). The mean BMD in the FN was 1.010 ± 0.023 g/cm 2 in male and 0.784 ± 0.020 g/cm 2 in female patients (P = 0.00). Based on the World Health Organization criteria, 73.8% of the male and 44.9% of the female patients in our study had normal BMD (P = 0.002); 16.7% male and 28.2% female patients had osteopenia (P = 0.14), while 9.5% male and 26.9% female patients had osteoporosis (P = 0.01). This study showed a marked decrease in mean BMD in the cortical bone (FN) compared with trabecular bone (LV) (P = 0.00) as well as in female patients on HD compared with male patients (P = 0.016 for LV and P = 0.00 for FN).
  5 4,200 609
Expression of CD44 and P53 in renal cell carcinoma: Association with tumor subtypes
Farahnaz Noroozinia, Abbas Naddaf Fahmideh, Zahra Yekta, Hadi Rouhrazi, Yousef Rasmi
January-February 2014, 25(1):79-84
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124495  PMID:24434386
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common malignancy of the kidney and accurate prediction of prognosis is valuable for the design of adjuvant therapy and counseling and effective scheduling of follow-up visits. Molecular genetic investigations of CD44 and P53 in RCC may be helpful in this regard. We studied the CD44 and P53 expressions semi-quantitatively on paraffin-embedded specimens of 64 RCC patients (37 male/27 female) who underwent surgery from 2003 to 2008 by immunohistochemistry and analyzed the correlation of P53 and CD44 expression in RCC and outcome. Thirteen of 64 (20.3%) specimens were P53 positive, 30/64 (46.9%) were CD44 positive and five tumors with positive P53 expressed CD44 protein (P = 0.5). A statistically significant correlation was not found between CD44 and P53 expression (P = 0.5) and age (P = 0.07), sex (P= 0.3), tumor size (P = 0.7), grade (P = 0.23), vascular invasion (P = 1.00) and ureteral invasion (P = 1.00). Furthermore, a significant correlation was not found between P53 expression with age (P = 0.3), sex (P = 0.7), tumor size (P = 0.7), grade (P = 0.1), vascular inva­sion (P = 1.00) and ureteral invasion (P = 1.00). According to our findings, only P53 expression is generally accompanied by non-conventional subtype tumor.
  5 3,401 521
Monitoring the microbiological quality of dialysate and treated water
Mohammed Asserraji, Amr Maoujoud, Merouane Belarbi, Reda Elfarouki
January-February 2014, 25(1):91-95
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124499  PMID:24434388
During hemodialysis and related therapies, removal of waste products from the blood is made possible across a semi-permeable membrane. The microbiological quality of treated water (TW) and dialysate influences a number of dialysis-related complications. This article is a review of the microbiological features of TW and dialysate fluid over a six-year period (February 2007 to December 2012) in the Dialysis Unit, 1 st Medico-Surgical Hospital, Agadir, Morocco. Installation of a water treatment unit has been followed by a protocol to check its quality perio­dically. Results of microbiological monitoring (microorganisms and endotoxins) were collected over a six-year period. Fifty-four samples of TW and 12 samples of dialysate fluid were analyzed for colony forming units (CFU) and endotoxin during this period. All dialysate samples were negative, while in the TW, 9.2% of the samples yielded >100/mL CFU and 16.7% yielded >0.06 EU/mL of endotoxins. These abnormal results happened especially during the first two first years. More frequent disinfection of the distribution loop was the corrective measure. To obtain high-quality water for hemodialysis, the appropriate system must be continuously monitored in order to get high microbiological quality of TW and dialysate fluid.
  4 2,524 472
Role of fludrocortisone in the management of tacrolimus-induced hyperkalemia in a renal transplant recipient
V Sivakumar, P Sriramnaveen, C Krishna, Y Manjusha, Y Sandeep Reddy, N Sridhar, S Subramanian
January-February 2014, 25(1):149-151
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124539  PMID:24434399
  4 8,379 850
Anti-thymocyte globulin versus basiliximab induction in renal transplant recipients: Long-term outcome
Sailaja Kesiraju, Purna Paritala, Uma Maheswara Rao Ch, Srinivasa Murthy Athmakuri, VS Reddy, S Sahariah
January-February 2014, 25(1):9-15
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124459  PMID:24434376
Although basiliximab and rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) are effective in delaying and reducing the incidence of acute rejection (AR) thus improving short-term graft survival, their impact on long-term graft survival has not been well established in renal transplant recipients. To evaluate the long-term efficacy after induction therapy with ATG/basiliximab in renal transplant recipients, we studied retrospectively 86 renal transplant recipients of living donor renal transplantation from 2003 to 2006; of them, 42 patients received induction with ATG three doses of 50 mg, 25 mg, 25 mg/day on 0, 1 and 2 post-operative days (POD) and 44 age-matched patients received induction with basiliximab (20 mg/day on 0 and 4 PODs). All the patients received tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids as maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. Demographic characteristics were similar between both groups. Patient survival at 5 years was 90.5% in the ATG group and 84.1% in the basiliximab group, while graft survival was 83.4% and 77.3%, respectively. The incidence of acute rejection was 14.2% and 18.1% in the ATG and the basiliximab groups, respectively. The estimated mean glomerular filtration rates at 5 years post-transplantation was 52.1 mL/min and 49.1 mL/min and the mean serum creatinine levels were 1.55 ± 0.37 and 1.66 ± 0.51 mg/dL in the ATG and basiliximab groups, respectively. A low incidence of tuberculosis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was observed in the ATG group. There were no significant differences between the two groups, and both induction regimens assured a safe and effective treatment and were associated with similar excellent long-term patient and graft survival.
  4 5,598 1,280
Secondary oxalosis due to excess vitamin C intake: A cause of graft loss in a renal transplant recipient
S Yaich, Y Chaabouni, K Charfeddine, S Zaghdane, M Kharrat, K Kammoun, S Makni, T Boudawara, J Hachicha
January-February 2014, 25(1):113-116
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124518  PMID:24434393
Renal oxalate deposition can be seen with primary hyperoxaluria, malabsorptive states, ethylene glycol toxicity and, rarely, with excessive vitamin C ingestion. We report a case of secondary hyperoxaluria in which the diagnosis was not considered initially because there was no past history of urinary calculi and no evidence of nephrocalcinosis on plain X-ray of the abdomen and ultrasonography. The disease was detected and diagnosed only after kidney transplantation. Secondary oxalosis can cause graft loss or delayed graft function. Biopsy of the allograft should be carefully examined for oxalate deposits even in the absence of a family history. When oxalosis is diagnosed, intensifying hemodialysis (HD) to eliminate calcium oxalate can help in the recovery of renal function in some cases. Systematic vitamin C supplementation in HD patients should be avoided as it can be a cause of secondary oxalosis.
  3 6,525 804
Tranexamic acid overdosage-induced generalized seizure in renal failure
Anil Bhat, Dipankar M Bhowmik, Deepti Vibha, Manu Dogra, Sanjay K Agarwal
January-February 2014, 25(1):130-132
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124529  PMID:24434397
We report a 45-year-old lady with chronic kidney disease stage 4 due to chronic tubulointerstial disease. She was admitted to our center for severe anemia due to menorrhagia and deterioration of renal function. She was infused three units of packed cells during a session of hemodialysis. Tranexamic acid (TNA) 1 g 8-hourly was administered to her to control bleeding per vaginum. Two hours after the sixth dose of TNA, she had an episode of generalized tonic clonic convulsions. TNA was discontinued. Investigations of the patient revealed no biochemical or structural central nervous system abnormalities that could have provoked the convulsions. She did not require any further dialytic support. She had no further episodes of convulsion till dis­charge and during the two months of follow-up. Thus, the precipitating cause of convulsions was believed to be an overdose of TNA.
  3 7,534 823
Hepatitis C virus infection in dialysis patients
Hossein Khedmat, Mohsen Amini, Mohammad Ebrahim Ghamar-Chehreh, Shahram Agah
January-February 2014, 25(1):1-8
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124455  PMID:24434375
Despite the introduction of strict hygienic precautions preventing infection spread of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in dialysis settings, this infection is still prevalent among dialysis patients due to procedures making the patients vulnerable to infection through blood contamination. Treatment of HCV infection in dialysis patients is also less successful than that in the non-uremic population due to contraindication of using ribavirin, a main drug, in the infected patients. In this review article we aim to investigate the feasibility of the current antiviral therapies in dialysis patients infected with HCV infection.
  3 5,492 1,010
Acute renal failure and severe thrombocytopenia associated with metamizole
Maria Dolores Redondo-Pachon, Ricardo Enríquez, Ana Esther Sirvent, Isabel Millan, Alberto Romero, Francisco Amorós
January-February 2014, 25(1):121-125
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124524  PMID:24434395
Metamizole or dipyrone is a pyrazolone derivative that belongs to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Its main side-effect is hematological toxicity. Thrombocytopenia due to metamizole is rare and is usually associated with the involvement of the two other blood series. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia is more frequently related to immune mechanisms, and the diag­nosis is still largely made by exclusion of other causes and by correlation of timing of thrombocytopenia with the administration of drug. Metamizole may cause acute renal failure due to hemodynamic renal failure/acute tubular necrosis and/or acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. We report a case of acute renal failure and severe thrombocytopenia after metamizole. As far as we know, this combination of adverse effects from this drug has not been reported previously.
  2 6,968 1,155
Forgotten ureteric stents in renal transplant recipients: Three case reports
Mallikarjun Bardapure, Ajay Sharma, Abdul Hammad
January-February 2014, 25(1):109-112
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124514  PMID:24434392
Ureteric stents are widely used in renal transplantation to minimize the early urological complications. Ureteric stents are removed between two and 12 weeks following trans­plantation, once the vesico-ureteric anastomosis is healed. Ureteric stents are associated with considerable morbidity due to complications such as infection, hematuria, encrustations and migration. Despite the patient having a regular follow-up in the renal transplant clinic, ureteric stents may be overlooked and forgotten. The retained or forgotten ureteric stents may adversely affect renal allograft function and could be potentially life-threatening in immunocompromised transplant recipients with a single transplant kidney. Retrieving these retained ureteric stents could be challenging and may necessitate multimodal urological treatments. We report three cases of forgotten stents in renal transplant recipients for more than four years. These cases emphasize the importance of patient education about the indwelling ureteric stent and possibly providing with a stent card to the patient. Maintaining a stent register, with a possible computer tracking system, is highly recommended to prevent such complications.
  2 5,003 405
Evaluation of the effect of pentoxifylline on erythropoietin-resistant anemia in hemodialysis patients
Amir-Hooshang Mohammadpour, Fatemeh Nazemian, Mohammad Hassanzade Khaiat, Mohsen Tafaghodi, Pooneh Salari, Somaieh Charkazi, Masih Naghibi, Jamal Shamsara
January-February 2014, 25(1):73-78
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124492  PMID:24434385
Use of recombinant human erythropoietin (rh-Epo) improves hemoglobin (Hgb) in 90-95% of the cases of anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it is known that pro­inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) suppress erythropoiesis, resulting in inadequate response to rh-Epo. Pentoxifylline has been shown to have modulatory effects on the immune system. This prospec­tive study to evaluate the effect of pentoxyphylline on erythropoeisis was performed on 15 (eight males, seven females) clinically stable patients who had been on hemodialysis for at least six months with anemia (Hgb of <10.7 g/dL) unresponsive to rh-Epo despite high doses. They were treated with 400 mg pentoxifylline tablets once daily for 12 weeks. Hgb increased after one and two months of drug administration, but significant changes were observed in eight (53%) patients after three months (P <0.05). Our study illustrates a probable new use for an old medicine. Three months treatment with pentoxifylline was seen to increase Hgb significantly in rh-Epo-resistant patients. More prospective studies with a larger sample size are needed to determine the inhi­bitory role of cytokines on hematopoiesis and exploring new drugs or new drug indications to overcome anemia in advanced renal failure.
  2 3,950 851
Factors affecting response to hepatitis b vaccine among hemodialysis patients in a large Saudi Hemodialysis Center
Khalid Al Saran, Alaa Sabry, Zakaria Al Halawany, Mahmoud Ismail
January-February 2014, 25(1):185-191
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124572  PMID:24434410
The aim of this study is to determine the response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in patients on hemodialysis (HD) and to identify the factors that could affect this response. This retrospective study was carried out during the period from January 2009 to December 2009 in the Prince Salman Center for Kidney Diseases (PSCKD), Riyadh, and included 144 patients (78 males and 66 females) on regular HD, all of whom received hepatitis B vacci­nation. Patients were divided into two groups according to the level of hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb): Responders group (>10 IU/L) and non-responders group (<10 IU/L). The study looked at the factors that may affect the responsiveness to hepatitis B vaccination, like gender, age, co-existence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, dialysis adequacy that was evaluated by urea reduction ratio (URR) and Kt/V, hemoglobin level, albumin level, protein catabolic rate (PCR), body mass index (BMI), subjective global nutritional status (SGA) and HbA1c. There were 129 patients (89.6%) in the responders group including 69 males and 60 females and 15 patients (10.4%) in the non-responders group including nine males and six females. The mean age in the responders group and the non-responders group was 50.56 ± 15.35 and 56.87 ± 12.52 years, respectively (P = 0.128). The mean value of the PCR was 1.03 ± 0.17 and 0.88 ± 0.17 g/kg/day in the responders group and non-responders group, respectively (P = 0.002). There was no statically significant difference between the two groups regarding the presence or absence of HCV infection, age, gender, diabetes mellitus, URR, Kt/V, hemoglobin level and albumin level. We report a high response rate (89%) for HBV vaccination in our HD patients. The PCR was the only factor that affected the response to HBV vaccination in these patients.
  2 5,305 973
Renovascular hypertension: A report of 21 cases
Jannet Labidi, Dalel Touat, Khaoula Abdelghanim, Faida Ajili, Yousra Ben Ariba, Nadia Ben Abdelhafidh, Bassem Louzir, Salah Othmani
January-February 2014, 25(1):96-100
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124501  PMID:24434389
Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is among the most common forms of secondary hypertension. We studied 21 patients (eight male and 13 female) with RVH who were encountered during a period of 16 years. The average age of the patients was 34.75 years. Trans-renal Doppler ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of renovascular stenosis (RAS) as the cause of RVH in 95% of the patients. Computed tomography angiography was performed in ten cases, which confirmed the diagnosis in all these cases. Magnetic resonance angiography was performed in only three patients. Renal scintigraphy was performed in 11 patients, with DTPA in nine patients and with MAG3 in two cases. Arteriography was performed in 15 cases for therapeutic end points. In two patients, we treated the arteries of both kidneys and in 19 cases we treated only one kidney artery. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was performed in ten cases. Renal arterial stent placement was performed in three cases in which RAS was from an atherosclerosis etiology. Surgical revascularization was performed in four cases. Nephrectomy was necessary in four cases. After interventional treatment, medical treatment using antihypertensive drugs was necessary in 17 of the patients. After treatment, three patients returned to normal kidney function, while worsening of glomerular filtration rate was noted in four patients. Some complications such as a kidney infarct after treatment, a nephrectomy, artery thrombosis, an ischemic stroke and recurrent RAS were also noted.
  1 3,381 574
The value of serum FGF-23 as a cardiovascular marker in HD patients
Dawlat Sany, Abd Elbasat Elsawy, Ahmed Aziz, Yasser Elshahawy, Hayam Ahmed, Hayam Aref, Mohamed Abd El Rahman
January-February 2014, 25(1):44-52
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124483  PMID:24434381
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a recently discovered regulator of phos­phate and mineral metabolism and has been associated with both progression of CKD and mortality in dialysis patients. To evaluate the association between serum FGF-23 levels and echocardiographic measurements in long-term HD (HD) patients without cardiac symptoms, we studied 90 consecutive patients treated in a single HD center (51 males, 39 females; mean age 41.5 ± 14.2 years, mean HD duration 71.2 ± 14.2 months). Comprehensive echocardiography was performed after HD and blood samples were obtained before HD. The serum FGF-23 level in dialysis patients was 95.7 ± 88.4 pg/mL. In univariate analysis, serum calcium levels (r = 0.33, P <0.05), serum creatinine (r = 0.34, P <0.05), serum albumin (r = 0.35, P <0.05) and left ventri­cular mass index (LVMI) (r = 0.33, P <0.001) were correlated weakly with the FGF-23 levels. Neither s. phosphorus nor calcium x phosphorus product correlated with FGF-23. In univariate regression analysis, only LVMI [β = 0.42, P <0.05, confidence interval (CI) 0.3-4.3], serum calcium (β= 0.87, P <0.001, CI 0.8-7.3), serum albumin (β= 0.87, P < 0.001, CI 0.8-7.3) and serum creatinine (β= 0.67, P <0.05, CI 0.5-6.5) significantly correlated with FGF-23. FGF-23 was identified as a factor that is weakly associated with LVMI. Thus, FGF-23 alone may not be a parameter that can be used for evaluation of the cardiac status in HD patients.
  1 2,922 571
Adaptation and Implementation of the "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO)" Guidelines for Evaluation and Management of Mineral and Bone Disorders in Chronic Kidney Disease for Practice in the Middle East Countries
Mona Al Rukhaimi, Ali Al Sahow, Yousef Boobes, David Goldsmith, Jose Khabouth, Tarek El Baz, Hisham Mahmoud, Mohammad Reza Ganji, Faissal A. M. Shaheen
January-February 2014, 25(1):133-148
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124536  PMID:24434398
This review presents the views of an expert group of nephrologists from the Middle East along with an international expert on adaptation and implementation of the 2009 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines for evaluation and manage­ment of mineral and bone disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD-MBD) for practice in the Middle East countries. The members of the panel examined the KDIGO guidelines and formulated recommendations that can be implemented practically for the management of CKD-MBD in the Middle East. There was a broad agreement on most of the recommendations made by the KDIGO work-group. However, the panelists commented on specific areas and amplified certain concepts that might help the nephrologists in the Middle East. The final document was reviewed by all participants as well as by members of the Middle East task force implementation group for KDIGO guidelines. Their comments were incorporated. The guideline statements are presented along with detailed rationale and relevant discussion as well as limitations of the evidence. The panel recognized the need to upgrade the suggestion of KDIGO related to lateral abdominal radiograph and echocardiogram in patients with CKD stages 3-5D into a stronger recommendation. The panel underlined the risk of hyper-phosphatemia to CKD-MBD and the importance of prompt initiation or modification of therapy according to rising trends in para­thyroid hormone level. They recommended the use of non-calcium-based phosphate binders as the first-line therapy in CKD patients with signs of vascular calcification. The panel agreed that all aspects of the KDIGO recommendations concerning bone biopsy, evaluation and treatment of bone disease after kidney trans­plantation should be implemented as such.
  1 5,409 1,070
Multiple cysts in kidneys: A case report
K. V. S. Hari Kumar, Ratan Jha, S Shekhar, K Sunil, KD Modi
January-February 2014, 25(1):126-129
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124528  PMID:24434396
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, which is an autosomal dominant inherited disease, is characterized by highly vascularized tumors in different organs. We report a 42-year-old male who presented to our hospital with diarrhea and weight loss of six months' duration. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed bilateral polycystic kidneys with multiple cystic and solid com­ponents as well as polycystic pancreas. A computerized tomography scan of the abdomen revealed bilateral multiple simple and complex renal cysts, cystic lesions in the head and body of the pancreas and a non-enhancing lesion in the left adrenal gland. The features raised the possibility of VHL syndrome and a biopsy of the kidney revealed atypical cells with a suspicion of malignancy. He underwent bilateral nephrectomy and is on maintenance dialysis since then.
  - 4,003 615
Recurrent renal allograft dysfunction due to ureteric stenosis in a patient with the BK virus infection
Yogesh N.V. Reddy, Johannes Trabert, Florian Wunderer, Georgi Abraham, Yuvaram N.V. Reddy
January-February 2014, 25(1):101-104
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124508  PMID:24434390
Diseases of the genitourinary tract in association with the BK virus (BKV) infec­tion are increasing among renal allograft recipients. We herewith report a young, female renal transplant recipient who presented with allograft dysfunction secondary to proximal ureteric stenosis. The allograft function improved dramatically after correction and stenting of the ste­nosis. Our case suggests that screening for BKV infection should be an integral part of evaluation of allograft dysfunction.
  - 3,142 460
Leak from the surface of a decapsulated renal allograft: Urine or lymph? Excellent response to povidone iodine instillation
Rathore Yashwant, Sandeep Guleria, Nikhil Khattar, Rakesh Kumar, Surjeet Kumar
January-February 2014, 25(1):105-108
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124512  PMID:24434391
  - 2,489 275
Recurrent epistaxis revealing a non-catheter-related superior vena cava syndrome in a hemodialysis patient: Unmasking undifferentiated connective tissue disease
O Dahmani, P Demarchi, C Sophoclis, K Abi-ayad, S Belkhalfa, J Djellid
January-February 2014, 25(1):117-120
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124522  PMID:24434394
We report a case of an 80-year-old Caucasian woman on maintenance hemodialysis for almost three years through a right-tunneled jugular catheter. She presented with recurrent epistaxis for which she was periodically blood transfused despite erythropoietin therapy. She continued manifesting epistaxis, which was progressively emerging as a sign related to superior vena cava syndrome due to mediastinal mass. Laboratory investigations revealed active immunological abnormalities thereafter. Malignant superior vena syndrome remains an uncommon com­plication in this population related to a history of or ongoing central vein catheterization. Pro­longed oozing from the vascular site was the first alerting sign of the existence of this syndrome. We conclude that sometimes the transformation of undifferentiated connective tissue disease in the presence of epidermoid carcinoma of the superior mediastinum may be revealed during the use of catheters in dialysis.
  - 2,839 334
Factors affecting the maturation of arterio-venous fistula in patients with end-stage renal disease
Morteza Khavanin Zadeh, Alireza Negahi
January-February 2014, 25(1):161-165
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124554  PMID:24434403
  - 3,019 467
Adding peritoneal flush for catheter salvage after early capd peritonitis: A report of two cases
Mahendra Atlani, Desikan Prabha
January-February 2014, 25(1):166-167
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124556  PMID:24434404
  - 2,278 284
Half and half nail
Jaya Prakash Sahoo
January-February 2014, 25(1):168-169
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124558  PMID:24434405
  - 2,658 266
Inverted cortico-medullary differentiation of renal hemosiderosis
Ankur Gupta, Ashish Khandelwal, Kanika Khandelwal
January-February 2014, 25(1):170-171
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124559  PMID:24434406
  - 3,285 322
Creatinine clearance of strict vegetarianism practitioners: An observation
Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-February 2014, 25(1):172-173
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124562  PMID:24434407
  - 6,087 539
Prevalence of hypertension in healthy school children in Pakistan and its relationship with body mass index, proteinuria and hematuria
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
January-February 2014, 25(1):174-175
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124564  PMID:24434408
  - 1,841 359
Author's reply
Arshalooz Jamila Rahman, Farah Naz Qamar
January-February 2014, 25(1):175-176
  - 1,467 160
Dengue transmission via transplantation: Need further evidence
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-February 2014, 25(1):152-152
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124546  PMID:24434400
  - 1,877 330
Polyflux® 210h hemodialysis membrane targets to improve filtration
A Hedayat, A Shoker
January-February 2014, 25(1):156-160
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124551  PMID:24434402
  - 3,629 423
Expression comparison of azithromycin and clarithromycin in triple-therapy regimens for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in hemodialysis patients
Jamshid Vafaeimanesh, Mojgan Jalalzadeh, Morteza Nazarian
January-February 2014, 25(1):53-57
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124486  PMID:24434382
To compare a triple-therapy regimen based on change of antibiotic (azithromycin and clarithromycin) for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in hemodialysis (HD) patients, we studied in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial 39 patients who had dyspepsia and showed two positive results from the diagnostic tests of H. pylori infection including anti-H. pylori serology and stool antigen (HpSAg) and urease breath test (UBT). The patients were divided into two groups: Group-A received omeprazol 20 mg, amoxycilin 500 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg twice a day and Group-B received omeprazol 20 mg, amoxicillin 500 mg and azithromycin 250 mg twice a day. The adverse events and compliance with triple therapy were reviewed at one visit per week. Both groups were prescribed their medications for 14 days. Of the 39 patients, only 37 patients completed the treatment schedule (20 men and 19 women, with the mean being 59 years). Two patients died due to myocardial infarction before the start of treatment and were out of the study. The eradication rate of H. pylori, evaluated by negative results of UBT, was 82.4% in Group-A and 80% in Group-B (P-value = 1.0). The results of our study showed no significant difference of azitromycin versus claritromycin in the eradication of H. pylori infection in HD patients.
  - 8,391 897
Carotid artery stenosis in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis: Epidemiological aspects, main risk factors and appropriate diagnostic criteria
Shahram Shams Hakimi, Hazhir Saberi, Hadi Rokniyazdi, Mona Salahi
January-February 2014, 25(1):58-65
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124488  PMID:24434383
Knowledge of the epidemiology and risk profile of peripheral vascular disease among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a potential role for determining its outcome. This study assessed the epidemiological aspects and risk factors of carotid artery stenosis (CAS), assessed by clinical ankle brachial index (ABI), in patients on dialysis. This study was performed on 84 patients with CKD undergoing hemodialysis (HD; n = 65) or peritoneal dialysis (PD; n = 19). The ABI was measured using a concurrent oscillometric method and Color Doppler sonography. An ABI value >0.9 was defined as normal. Severity of the stenosis was determined using B-Mode sonography. Overall, CAS was seen in 51.2% of the study patients. No significant difference was found in the overall prevalence of CAS between the HD and PD groups (50.8% vs. 52.6%, P = 0.552). The mean ABI in the HD and PD groups was 1.13 and 1.06, respectively. Among patient characteristics, advanced age was found to be a predictor of CAS in the study patients. Gender, type of dialysis or underlying risk factors could not predict CAS. ABI measurement was an acceptable predictor of CAS, with a receiver operator characteristic of 0.645. The optimal cut-off for ABI for predicting CAS was identified at 1.0; this yielded a sensitivity of 70.8% and a specificity of 63.6% for the test. In conclusion, a notable number of patients undergoing dialysis for CKD had CAS. The main predictive factor was advanced age. ABI measurement seems to be an acceptable tool to diagnose CAS.
  - 2,962 401
Hypertension in post-renal transplant patients: Pilot study
Anita Saxena, RK Sharma
January-February 2014, 25(1):22-28
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124466  PMID:24434378
Post-transplant hypertension is a major risk factor for graft loss and patient survival; therefore, hypertension following renal transplantation must be treated strictly. There seems to be a strong association between hypertension, total body water (TBW) and dry weight. In this study, we report the relationship of body water and body composition with hypertension in post-renal transplant patients. Forty-five post-transplant patients were enrolled in the study. Blood pressure (BP) was labeled as controlled if BP was 120/80 mm Hg and not under good control if BP was above 120/80 mm Hg. Based on the number of antihypertensive medications a patient was taking, patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 patients on one antihypertensive drug and Group 2 patients on more than one antihypertensive drug. Nutritional status of the patients was assessed. Body composition (water compartments, body fat and lean mass) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Patient data were compared with 30 healthy volunteers. In patients, systolic BP was associated with TBW (P = 0.016), extracellular water (ECW Lt; r = 0.99), ECW% (r = 0.78) and diastolic BP with TBW% (P = 0.003), dry weight (r = 0.76) ECW% (r = 0.95) and percent intracellular water (ICW%) (r = 0.79). Compared with controls, ECW and ECW% was higher in patients, and the ICW% was less in patients. There was significant difference in the actual weight of the patients and BIA-derived dry weight, although patients were clinically not edematous. The study showed a significant increase in diastolic BP with increase in dry weight. Significant difference in TBW was observed when the patients were grouped on the basis of the antihypertensive medication a patient was taking (one antihypertensive drug versus more than one antihypertensive drug). This study also showed an association between hypertension and overhydration. BIA may be a useful tool for the clinical assessment of overhydration in non-edematous patients.
  - 4,104 609
CD20 antigen expression by lymphoma cells in lung allograft recipients is associated with higher remission rate and superior survival: A study on heart and lung transplant recipients
Aghil Gholipour-Shoiili, Hani Gholipour-Shoiili, Saeed Taheri
January-February 2014, 25(1):29-37
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124468  PMID:24434379
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are one of the fatal complications of transplantation, and there is scarcity of data on the relevance of antigen expression by tumor cells in PTLD. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the potential effects of CD20 antigen expression by PTLD lesions developing in heart/lung transplant recipients. A comprehensive search was performed for reports indicating CD20 antigen tests in PTLD lesions developing in heart and/or lung transplant recipients. For data accumulation, we developed a standard questionnaire and data of patients presented in different published reports were entered into it. Finally, data from 26 previously published reports from different centers around the world were included in the analysis. CD20-positive PTLD lesions are significantly more likely to be of the B cell type (P = 0.006). PTLD in patients with a CD20-positive test represented relevantly shorter time from transplantation to PTLD, although it did not reach a significance level (P = 0.08). At the last follow-up, 53% patients were dead. Survival analysis showed no prognosis difference regarding CD20 test. When data were reanalyzed separately for heart and lung transplant recipients, lung recipients developing PTLD with a CD20-positive test were significantly more likely to represent remission episodes (P = 0.03), and also represented a significantly better outcome than CD20-negative PTLD patients (P = 0.04). CD20-positive PTLD lesions in heart/lung recipients are more likely of the B cell type and develop PTLD lesions earlier than their CD20-negative counterparts. Lung recipients developing CD20-positive PTLD lesions represented higher remission rates and better outcome. Further studies with prospective follow-up of patients are needed for confirming our findings.
  - 2,745 382
Metabolic status of 1088 patients after renal transplantation: Assessment of twelve years monitoring in Algiers Mustapha Hospital
Lyece Yargui, Houria Chettouh, Hamama Boukni, Nassima Mokhtari, Arezki Berhoune
January-February 2014, 25(1):177-184
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124568  PMID:24434409
Since the introduction of monitoring levels of immunosuppressive medications in our service in July 2000, 1088 kidney transplant patients were received for therapeutic drug monitoring and regular follow-up. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the data on these renal graft patients in Algeria and correlate with our 12 years' experience with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) measurements. In addition, during this period, we also examined other bioche­mical parameters. The analysis was focused on the difference of effect of cyclosporin A (CsA; 623 patients) and Tacrolimus (Tac; 465 patients) on lipid and glucose metabolism and their side-effects, if any, on the renal function. The mean age at the time of transplantation was 36.1 years. A great majority of the transplanted kidneys had been taken from living related donors (88.6%). Three-quarters of all grafts were transplanted in our country (79.5%). Dyslipidemia and renal dysfunction were the most common adverse effects of CsA and Tac exposure, with a frequency of 21.4% and 10.3%, respectively. Both the CNIs had a similar effect on the lipid levels. The highest incidence occurred at 3-12 months after renal graft. Tac seemed to have more side-effects on glycemia, causing the onset of diabetes mellitus more than two-fold than CsA (6.9% vs. 3.1%). A significant difference was observed during 12-24 months after transplantation. However, Tac was associated with the most favorable effects on renal function estimated with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula.
  - 2,926 547
Health indicators for renal replacement therapy in Saudi Arabia

January-February 2014, 25(1):206-212
  - 1,076 206
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